Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/63

Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
simple cells
feature detector neurons in primary visual cortex which respond best when oganisms are exposed to lines of specific orientations. Hubel and Weisel
complex cells
feature detector neurons which respond best when organisms are exposed to lines of specific orientations moving in specific directions
hypercomplex cells
feature detector neurons which respond best when organism are exposed to specific angles moving in specific directions
visual angle
the number of degrees of arc that the image of an object in the visual feidl subtends on the retina. higher degree of arc when closer to object
sustained attention
the ability to maintain selective processing with maximal sensitivity over given periods of time
spotlight of attention
based on Posner's theories of attention, ability of subjects to move the focus of attention in the visual field while eyes are fixated
directed attention
orientation of selective processing to some specific aspect of the environment
consciousness
the state of self-observation of private internal events
pattern recognition
ability to discriminate between general categories of ambiguous stimuli
Gestalt psychology
form perceptions automatically proceeds from the whole pattern of stimuli, whole is more than parts
law of good figure
Gestalt theory, every stimulus pattern tends to be percetually organized into the most simple of all possible components
law of similiarity
Gestalt theory, similar stimuli tend ot form percptually organized groups
top-down processing
conceptually driven, processing starts with high level info (context) before subcomponents features are processed
bottom-up processing
data-driven, processing starts with analysis of small units (primitives) before high level info analyzed
pop-out boundaries
boundaries formed automatically by primitive stimulus characteristics, such as line tilt, curved shape, color, etc.
Oblique Effect
perceptual sensitivity to horizontal lines is greater than that to oblique lines. effect confirmed by rection time, visual masking, selective adaptation experiments
visual masking
referes to distraction stimuli which are presented prior to or after target presentation, and which have the effects of decreasing perceptial sensitivity to the target stimulis
selective adaptation
refers to decreases in perceptual sensistivity to a specific stimulus after prolonged exposure to that specific stimulus
template theory
theiry which states that a pattern is recognized based upon its concordance with a pre-existing standard in the brain
feature detection theory
processing proceeds from simple primiticves to complex patterns. Selfridge in Pandomonium model--> Hubel and Weisel
prototype
average (idealized) stimulus pattern representing a class of stimulus patterns, rules include essential characteristics of prototype and variations - category
Span of apprehension
apparant limit on immediate perceptual recognition in an iconic task using the 'full report' proceudre, 3-5 items in 9 item array
Monoptic presentation
refers to presentation of stimuli drom a single location in the visual field to a single eye
dichoptic presentation
refers to sequential presentation of stimuli from a single location in the visual field to one eye anf then to the other such that stimulus presentations are never simulatneously projected to both eyes, use to determin whether masking effects are perigpheral or central in nature
iconic store
short-lived (100-500msec) sensory register or pictorial memory for visual stimuli, retinal photorecrptors retain image info for longer periods than what is present in environment
echoic store
analigue of the iconic store for audition, persist for longer periods (2 sec) than iconic
Object-superiority effect
detection of primitve features, such as lines, facilitated when the features appear within 'well organized' objects, compared to detection within a ranom array of primitve features
word-superiority effect
detection of letters within words is faster than detection of the same letter presented alone
semantic priming
prior presentation of words from some category can facilitate the recognition of other words from the same category
iconic store
short-lived (100-500msec) sensory register or pictorial memory for visual stimuli, retinal photorecrptors retain image info for longer periods than what is present in environment
echoic store
analigue of the iconic store for audition, persist for longer periods (2 sec) than iconic
Object-superiority effect
detection of primitve features, such as lines, facilitated when the features appear within 'well organized' objects, compared to detection within a ranom array of primitve features
word-superiority effect
detection of letters within words is faster than detection of the same letter presented alone
semantic priming
prior presentation of words from some category can facilitate the recognition of other words from the same category
illusory conjunction
innappropriate perception produced by failure of primary sensory systems ot correctly combine basic environmental features
PET
radioactive isotopes collide and explode as decay (1/2 life is short)
MRI
magnetic field (2-4 tesla) - change state of nuclei of atoms
anatomy of distribution of certain substance
fMRI
no radioactive, deoxyhemoglobin in oxygen
ERP
recording epoch = 1 sec, up to 200ms is early junction ot junction, brainwqaves timelocked to stimulus presentations - average collection of voltage oscillations
CAT
anatomical image of brain density, low resolution
EEG
electrical firing rate of cell, can't tell specific region/area, track ERPS (P300)
Subtraction Procedure
1.ID baseline treatment with cognitive process P
2. ID baseline identical to treatment but without cognitive process P
3. collectr brain scans in baseline and treatment, repeat, compute average for each individual
4. substract average baseline from average treatment. Compute grand average and find areas that are different from zero
5. Conclude statistically significant areas account for cognitive process P
Substraction method critiques
pure insertion problem, vague anatomy, cognitive dogma
Pure insertion problem
impossible that baseline and treatment could vary by only a single brain operation
problem of labeling vague anatomy
label can't pinpoint area of reaction, limit area but still don't know how/why
problem of cognitive dogma
results can't refute theory only map brain, map can't change behavior
Sperling experiment
iconic memory, partial and whole report (4-5 letters - span of apprehension)
D' vs. A'
D' = normal distribution
A' = non-paramentric
both are perceptual sensitivity measures
Treisman's visual search paradigm
Pre-attentive primitives --> focused attention --> percepts
parts 'glue' to get whole
Hubel and Wiesel
neurons in visual cortex are tuned to lines of specific orientation and curvature
McCarthy and Donchin (1981)
P300 latency increase with stimulus degradation but not effect by response selection
Navon (1977)
Global precedence
Exp. 1 --> hear/see s/h - consistent quick, then neutral, inconsistent RT slow
Exp. 2 --> visual stimuli local/global - whole before parts
Exp. 3 --> Exp 2 with P300 - whole over parts
Posner
attention shifting - disengagement--> move attention --> engage target
damage to parietal lobe = can't disengage
Broadbent
early selection theory of attention - incoming stimuli effect senses but don't pass filter, register-filter-detect-recognize
Hillyard and Magnum
'sensory gain theory' of attention - attention to location increases amount of visual processing, selection is early in processing stream
Deutsch/Norman
late selection theory of attention, effects to subliminal processing not in conscious awareness because degraded/quick (not aware of learning)
feature detection theory
perceptions independent of context, tree then forest
Gestalt theory
whole before part, context key
template matching theory
whole image match with stored representation (Gestalt)
prototype matching theory
match item ot stereotype - closer to prototype increase recognition
prospagnosia
inability to recognize different faces (damage to fusiform area)
Kahneman model of attention
limited capacity reservior - allocation policy - possible response
Posner and Boies
Task 1 - letter matching (name and physical) --> name match take longer
Task 2 - dual task, letter and beep --> if beep at time of letter decision, RT increase