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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 characteristics of human language (Faux)
1. semantic - has meaning
2. symbolic - sounds/words arbitrary with no built-in meaning
3. syntactic - set of rules, grammar
4. generative - limited number symbols express infinite number of messages
Washow and sign language
chimp @ 4 - 85 signs
chimp @ 5 - 160 signs - sequence up to 5 signs long
signing by operant conditioning
Phoneme
smallest unit of sound that can be heard and recognized as speech, nonmeaningful by themselves
English = 42 phonemes
Human language = 1000
morpheme
smallest meaningful unit of speech sounds which alter meaning
syntax
rules of grammer that govern phrases
a. Surface structure - grammar
b. deep structure - basic meaning or idea to generate 'surface'
Werker et al. (1981) - Hindi phonemes
dental vs. retroflex 'da'/'ta'
odd-ball paradigm shows baby can tell difference ad discriminate phonemes up to 10 months
Wada test
Test to find language hemisphere. sodium amytal into coratal artery to paralyze part of brain. Have patient read - if can't read fluenty then hit language hemisphere
Broca's aphasia
expressive aphasia, lack normal speech rhythms, lack prosody, agrammatical, can't appreciate nuances of meaning affected by grammatical context
dysarthia
problems with mechanics of speech production, ex. tongue
aprosodia
problem with normal speech rhythms
agrammaticism
telegraphics speech, ex. 'eat dinner'
1997 study of morphological study of brain
language-associated cortical regions are proportionally larger in female brain - 30% larger
ischemic
bloot clot in artery as artery narrows, --> stroke
data siggesting biological influence on language learning
1. children learn language at rapid rate (12 words/day)
2. feral children can't master grammar after 8 years old
3.humans have vocal modifications allowing wide variety of speech sounds
4. left hemisphere is dominant for speech production and comprehension
5. adult humans can't perceive foreign phonemes as seperate yet babies can
Chomsky
1. universal underlying grammar process
2. children have innate grammatical knowledge
3. need inborn language acquisition device to learn b/c children exposed to impoverish language
4. language is species specific
5. aminals can't learn language
Chomsky universal grammar
1. most languages have SVO or SOV
2. SVO uses prepositions, SOV uses postpositions
3. verb affixes tense, noun affixes signal number and gender
4. subject precedes object
5. all languages have noun phrases, verb phrases, prepositional phrases, etc. that requrie specific arrangemnts
Spoken word neural pathway
Areas 41/42 (temporal) --> Wernicke's (22) --> hear and comprehend world
cognition neural pathway
Wernicke --> Broca --> face --> cranial nerves --> speak
written word neural pathway
Area 17(occipital) --> Area 18/19 (inner occipital) --> Area 39 (angular gyrus) --> Wernicke --> read
Kutas and Hillyard
N400 - bigger response = bigger semantic distance
Fischer et al (1985)
N400 not reflection of truth value, but rather strength of association
The Syllogism
2 premises and conclusion. In accurate conclusions if premises aren't true or if premises don't support conlcusion
Fundamental Fixedness (Dunkers - 1945)
candle problem, people can't easily figure out b/c limit function of box to holding tacks
Cultural Block
ping pong ball in pipe, culture keeps up from understanding solution b/c we limit the function of things
algorithm
step-by-step recipe for solving problem
heuristic
general rule of thumb --> simple, quick answer
deductive reasoning
syllogism, conclusion based on fact
inductive reasoning
generalizing from the known facts to the unknown
Peterson and Peterson
STM, memorize digits and recall back
Miller - digit span
2 +/- 7
Sternberg
memory scanning - see if probe in original list
memory is exhaustive, not self-terminating
Nuechterlein
visual sustained attention
perceptual sensitivity decrease over time (degraded = got worse over time)
Posner
peripheral cued task
spotlight of attention shifts with boxes
McCarthy and Donchin
P300 ERP
P300 latency increase with degredation, not effected by response selection
Shepard and Metzler
mental rotation
brain mechanically rotqates before compare, RT = linear function of angular deviation
further rotate then longer it takes to compare
Cooper and Shepard
mental rotation
rotated Rs
Kosslyn
mental imagry scanning
Island map - farther away = increased RT
Meyer and Schvaneveldt
lexical decision task
semantic priming and spreading activation memory (word recognition --> associated terms)
word pairs of english/nonwords
Tversky and Kahneman
Judgment
heuristics - representativeness/similairty, conjunction fallacy, perception of random processes, availibility, selection task, prisoner's dilemma