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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a problem consisting of original state, goal state, and rules are clearly specified
original state, goal state, or the rules are unclear.
solving a previous problem increase the difficulty of solving a problem later.
solving a previous problem facilitates solving a problem later
an effort to overcome obstacles obstructing the path to a solution
Problem solving
rules of thumb that often lead to correct conclusions
is a method that will always produce a solution to the problem, sooner or later (if it exists). Ie, trying every possible combination until the correct one is reached.
move outward from the problem in a variety of directions...score high on creativity tests
Divergent thinking
Working towards a single, specific answer
Convergent thinking
All possible actions that can be attempted to solve a problem.
Problem space
one way of trying to reduce negative transfer is to set the problem aside
(Entrenchment):keep trying the same solution they have used in previous problems.
Mental set
The function or use we assign to objects tends to remain fixed or stable
belief concerning uniformity of particular characteristics
the inability to realize that something known to have a particular use may also be used for performing other functions
Functional fixedness
reasoning involves reaching a conclusion based upon assumptions that are known to be true.
Deductive Reasoning
something is LIKELY TO BE TRUE on the basis of past experience, no guarantee that it will be absolutely true.
- Reasoning from specific facts to reach a conclusion that may explain the facts
Inductive Reasoning
The premises of this state something about the category memberships f the terms. Ie, All cognitive psychs are pianists, all pianist are athletes, therefore, all cognitive psychs are atheletes.
Categorical Syllogism
people seem to use similarity to some prototypical example rather than probability as the basis for judgment.
Conjunction fallacy
weighting of utility based on the individual not objective criteria.
Subjective Utility
goal of human action is to seek pleasure and avoid pain
Subjective expected utility theory
A strategy for reducting a wealth of information built on bounded rationality and involves picking criteria that is important.
Elimination by aspects
consider options one at a time and select one as soon as we find one that is satisfactory (meets minimum level of acceptability)
- People do not have unlimited rationality as suggest by previous theories, but not rational.
“the way options are presented influence the selection.”
Framing Effects
When use of previous experience can not help us to deduce what might be true; context may activate an appropriate schema.
-Judgment on basis of what is readily brought to mind
-Underestimate a LIKELY EVENT if it never occurred before
Ie, it is easy to remember disasters rather than deaths by nat. causes.
Start with a first guess and then we make adjustments to that number on the basis of additional information.
(creeping determinism): Overconfidence about events that have already happened.
Hindsight Bias
Sternberg process of complex task involving encoding the problem and formulating a general strategy for attacking the problem(s)
-done more by people with high IQ
Global planning
Sternberg process of complex task involving forming and implementing strategies for details of the task
-Done more by people with low IQ.
Local planning
In order to understand intelligence, we need to take a look at the context in which it occurs.
-Different Cultures and experience affect what we know.
a test that would be fair regardless of culture
Cultural Fair testing
devising a test that is relevant to a specific culture assessing the appropriate skills and knowledge
Culture Relevant tests
a process of intelligence time theory in which the speed of gaining access to the long-term memory is assessed.
Lexical Access (Hunt)
a process of intelligence time theory which tests the time it take to select from among several possibilities.
Choice Reaction Time (Jenson)
Localized metabolism of glucose.
neural efficiency
3 level IQ test, testing: Crystalized, Fluid-Analytic, and Short Term Memory
Component of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory on ability to think abstractly
- Ability to analyze and evaluate ideas.
- What we traditionally think of as intelligence
Analytic (Componential) Intelligence
Component of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory reflective of creative thinking
- Ability to formulate strageties based on prior experiences
Creative (Experiential) Intelligence
Component of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory on practical intelligence or "street smarts"
- Ability to adapt to present environment
Practical (Contextual) Intelligence
intelligence test covering a wide variety of cognitive abilities.
Wechsler Intelligence test
the attempt by humans to construct systems that show intelligence, and particularly, the intelligent processing of info
Artificial Intelligence
(role of nondirective psychotherapy) Goal: elicit feelings and reflect them back to the patient hopefully so the patient “can figure out what to do about these feelings”
(role of paranoid patient of a psychotherapist) Kenneth Colby (1963)
AI program designed to teach students. Characterized by:
Intelligent Tutoring Systems
computer program that perform like experts in a particular area of specialty or domain. Consisting of a knowledge base and interference engine.
Expert Systems
test asking can one distinguish between the performance of a human and a computer?
Turing Test