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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which spina bifida type is restricted to vertebral arches and usually is asymptomatic with small tuft of hair or dimple
Spina bifida occulta
Which type of spina bifida is more extensive and involves bony and soft tissue defects and meninges protrude as fluid filled sac - lateral aspects covered by skin, apex is ulcerated
Spina bifida with meningocele
Which type of spina bifida is more extensive and involves spinal cord flattening
Spina bifida with meningomyelocele
Which type of spina bifida involves extreme defect with spinal column converted to gaping canal
Spina bifida with raschishisis
Malformations associated with spina bifida
- Arnold- Chiari malformation

- Dandy- Walker malformation

- Hydrocephalus

- Hydromyelia

- Polymicrogyria
Which disease is second in incidence to spina bifida
Anencephaly is _
Congenital absence of parts or all brain
What are the common manifestations of Arnold- Chiari malformation
- Beaking of quadrigeminal plate
- Herniation of cerebellar tonsils
- Kinking of dorsal aspect of lower medulla/upper spinal cord
- Hydromyelia- dilation of central portion of spinal cord
Tubular cavitation of spinal cord is called _
Dilation of central portion of spinal cord is called _
Arnold Chiari malformation involves _ which parts of brain?
Medulla and cerebellum
In Arnold Chiari malformation brainstem and cerebellum are compacted into _
Bowl shaped posterior fossa
What usually causes Arnold Chiari malformation?
Myelomeningocele anchors down lower end of spinal cord, causes downward growth of spinal cord and puts traction on medulla
In Arnold Chiari malformation caudal aspect of _ is herniated through _
Cerebellar vermis through enlarged foramen magnum
In Dandy Walker malformation _ is enlarged, and _ is absent or only in rudimentary form - in its place is a _
Posterior fossa enlarged


Large midline cyst
What is the most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus?
Congenital atresia of aqueduct of Sylvius
What is the difference between communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus?
In non-communicating hydrocephalus only portion of ventricular system (3d ventricle for example) is enlarged while in communicating hydrocephalus there is enlargement of entire ventricular system
In communicating hydrocephalus there is an impairment of _
If patient dies from hydrocephalus what is the actual cause of death ?
Increased ICP --> Herniation
Dilation of ventricular system with increased CSF secondary to loss of brain parenchyma is called _
Ex vacuo hydrocephalus
Disorders of cerebral gyri are associated with _
Mental retardation
Presence of small and excessive gyri is called _
If there is decrease in number of gyri and gyri that are present are unusually broad this is called _
Derangements in autosomes 1-12 are _
Incompatible with life, usually spontaneously aborted
Down syndrome patients develop _ by 4th decade
In Holoprosencephaly - how does the brain look? Whats absent? Which chromosomes involved?
Brain is microcephalic, there is no corpus callosum or interhemispheric fissure, not compatible with life
In vasogenic edema there is _ disruption resulting in _ - may be focal or generalized
Disruption of BBB resulting in increased permeability
In cytotoxic edema there is increase in _ caused by _
Increased intracellular volume caused by hypoxia/ischemia inhibiting active pumps (no ATP)
With epidural hematoma there is usually fracture of _
Temporal bone
How does epidural hematoma look on x ray?
Like olive
If pupil is fixed and dilated, what does that tell you
There is intracranial bleed on the same side
In boxing trauma there is damage to _
Reticular formation
_ inhibits nerve conduction - used as defibrillator
_ Blocks adenosine receptors
Static subdural hematoma has 3 routes of resolution - name them
- May be reabsorbed

- Remain static and undergo calcification

- Enlarge and rebleed within 6 months
Does absence of blood in CSF negate presence of subdural hematoma
NO - does NOT negate presence of subdural hematoma
Stretching meninges causes _
Focal cortical irritation causes _
Bilateral subdural hematoma causes _
Cognitive dysfunction
2/3 of cases of subarachnoid bleeding reflect _
Rupture of pre- existing aneurysm
How does patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage present?
Severe headache + nuchal rigidity + photophobia
In cerebral contusion if lesion is at the point of impact its called _

If lesion is on the opposite side its called _

What type of necrosis occurs in brain
High velocity contributes _ to the projectile launching in the brain
Spinal cord injuries often lead to _
Paraplegia or quadriplegia
If patient presents with signs of spinal cord injury what do you need to give patient right away
Steroids - anti-inflammatorys
In hyperextension injury (posterior displacement) which ligament tears
Anterior spinal
Spinal cord necrosis and edema caused by contusion is called _
Hematoma within spinal cord is called _
What is the most common congenital vascular malformation
AVM's are typically seen where
Cerebral cortex
Vascular malformation formed by large, irregular, thin walled vascular channels is called _
Cavernous angioma
How does cavernous angioma usually present?
Asymptomatic - if bleeding can cause seizures or other neurological symptoms
Focal aggregate of small vessels is called _
Focus of few enlarged veins is called _
Venous angioma
What causes rupture of aneurysms
Increased vascular pressure and weakened arterial wall
Saccular aneurysm that looks like balloon on top of vessel is called _
Berry aneurysm
Give example of atherosclerotic aneurysm
What kind of aneurysm is induced by hypertension
Charcot- Bouchard
Is berry aneurysm congenital or acquired
What is the most likely location of berry aneurysms
At the branch point of the vessel
Name 4 locations of berry aneurysms
Internal carotid complex
Anterior communicating artery
Basilar (5%)
Fusiform aneurysm is what kind of aneurysm
What causes mycotic aneurysm
Invasion of vasa vasorum of ascending aorta by syphillis
Name three most common places of cerebral hemorrhage
Basal ganglia - thalamus


Lypohyalinosis (deposits of lipids and hyalin into arteries ) weakens arteria wall and causes _ aneurysm

Where does it commonly occur?
Charcot - Bouchard

Along trunk of blood vessel rather than at bifurcation
What is more severe hypoxia or ischemia
Proximal and MCA arteries are occluded by _
Resultant infarct transects _ causing _
Atherosclerosis and thrombosis

Internal capsule - causing hemiparesis or hemiplegia
When small emboli occlude capillary bed petechiae are most common in _
White matter