Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Whic diseases reflect inherited disturbances in formation and preservation of myelin
What is the most common leukodystrophy?
Metachromatic leukodstrophy
Krabbe disease is caused by defficiency of _
Galactocerebroside - beta galactosidase
X linked inherited disorder of adrenal cortex and demyelination of nervous system is called _
ALD - adrenoleukodystrophy
Alexander disease is rare neurological disorder that causes loss of _ and increased accumulation of irregular extracellular fibers called _
Myelin in brain

Rosenthal fibers
Most common chronic CNS disease of young adults in USA
Multiple sclerosis
Mean age of MS patients
30 years
People living where have increased risk of MS
Colder climates
What is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis - where is it located
Demyelinating plaque in white matter
Demyelinating plaque of multiple sclerosis has preference for _
Optic nerves, chiasm
Which part of neuron is affected in MS
What is usually the presenting complaint of patient with MS
Loss of vision in one eye
What is the name of MS variant occuring in young individuals and has fulminant course over several months
Central pontine myelolysis is loss of myelin with sparing of neurons and axons - what is the most likely cause of this disease
What is the most common type of Parkinsons
What is an early treatment of Parkinsons
L dopa
What is the name of rare disorder that mimicks Parkinsons but is less pathological
Multiple system atrophy
ALS affects _
Motor neurons of brain and spinal cord
What is the inheritance pattern of ALS
Autosomal dominant
In ALS there is missense mutation that codes for _
How would patient with ALS originally present ?
Complain that he cant brush his teeth or shave due to weakness and wasting of muscles of hand (often with painful cramps)
What muscle changes occur in ALS
What is the inheritance pattern of Huntingtons
Autosomal dominant
In Huntingtons there is degeneration of -
Striatal neurons
Which trunucleotide repeat involved in Huntingtons
What is the most common inherited ataxia
Friedreich ataxia
What is the inheritance pattern of Friedreich ataxia
Autosomal recessive
What are the hallmarks of Friedrich ataxia
Combined ataxia of both upper and lower limbs + systemic abnormalities of skeletal system (scoliosis, pes cavus)
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which commonly causes death
- Diabetes mellitus
In Friedrich ataxia there is abnormality of chromosome _
In Friedreich ataxia what is the trinucleotide repeat involved
What is the stain specific for amyloid deposits in Alzheimers
Are neurofibrillary tangles specific for Alzheimers
NO - can occur in other diseases as well
What is a constant feature of Alzheimers
Amyloid beta deposits
What is the name of protein which is abnormal in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimers
TAU (phosphorylated)
How does brain look in patient with Alzheimers
Atrophied - gyri smaller, sulci wider
Most of the cases of Alzheimers are associated with what cytoplasmic inclusions
LEWY bodies
In Alzheimers cortical atrophy is _
Bilateral and symmetrical
How do you distinguish Pick disease from Alzheimers
It is initially unilateral and becomes bilateral with progression, in Alzheimers cortical atrophy is bilateral and symmetrical
Pick disease is localized to _
Frontotemporal region
Progression to death in Alzheimers occurs in _

Pick disease
15-20 years

What is the most common origin of brain metastases?
Lung (followed by breast)
Do primary brain tumors metastasize
What is the most common brain tumor in adults
Glioblastoma multiform
Which astrocytoma is relatively benign
Pliocytic astrocytoma
Oligodenroglioma mainly occurs where
White matter
In children ependymoma most often occurs in _ , in adults in _
Children - ventricles

Adults - spinal cord
Describe subependymoma
Solid, sometimes calcified - difficult to remove
Most common brain tumor in children
Medulloblastoma occurs exclusively in _ what part of brain?
Which tumor of cerebellum occurs in adults
What is the best treatment for medulloblastoma
Surgery followed by radiation - very radiosensitive
What patient population usually gets primary CNS lymphomas
What type of lymphomas are in CNS
In lymphomas of CNS majority of the cells are _
B cells
What is the most common benign pituitary tumor
What is the most common suprasellar tumor (above sella turcica) and how does it present
CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA - loss of peripheral vision and headache, more often in children
What is the most common benign brain tumor in adults
Meningioma - slow growing, in adults, usually attached to dura
How do you distinguish primary brain tumor from the metastases coming from somewhere else
MULTIPLE TUMORS - metastases

SINGLE TUMOR - primary
Tumor in lung or brain causes what kind of paraneoplastic syndrome?
Hyperthyroid or other endocrine problems