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34 Cards in this Set

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Bridges resemble repeaters in that they have a single input and a single output port, but they can interpret the data they retransmit. Bridging occurs at the Data Link layer of the OSI Model. Bridges read the destination (MAC) address information and decide whether to forward (retransmit) a packet to another segment on the network or, if the destination address belongs to the same segment as the source address, filter (discard) it.
Chapter Summary
A MIB (management information base) is a collection of data used by management
programs (which may be part of the network operating system or a third-party pro-gram)to analyze network performance and problems.
Chapter Summary
A router is a multiport device that can connect dissimilar LANs and WANs running
at different transmission speeds and using a variety of protocols. Routers operate at the Network layer (Layer 3) or higher of the OSI Model. historically, routers have transmitted data more slowly than switches or bridges because they pay attention to
Layer 3 information, such as protocols and logical addresses.
Chapter Summary
A switch running in cut-through mode will read a frame’s header and decide where to forward the data before it receives the entire packet.
Chapter Summary
A typical router has an internal processor, its own memory and power supply, input and output jacks for different types of network connectors (depending on the net-work type), and, usually, a management console interface.
Chapter Summary
An IRQ is the means by which a device can request attention from the CPU. IRQ
numbers range from 0 to 15.The BIOS will attempt to assign free IRQ numbers
to new devices. Typically, it will assign IRQ numbers 9,10, or 11, to network adapters. If conflicts occur, you must manually assign a device’s IRQ number rather than accept the default suggested by the BIOS.
Chapter Summary
As nodes transmit data through the bridge, the bridge establishes a filtering database of known MAC addresses and their locations on the network.The bridge uses its filtering database to determine whether a packet should be forwarded or filtered.
Chapter Summary
At its most primitive, a hub is a multiport repeater. A simple hub may contain mul-tiple ports that can connect a group of computers in a peer-to-peer fashion, accept-ing and repeating signals from each node. A slightly more sophisticated hub may
contain multiple ports for devices and one port that connects to a network’s back-bone. Hubs typically support a star or hybrid topology on an Ethernet network. On To k en Ring networks, hubs are called Multistation Access Units (MAUs).
Chapter Summary
Devices other than PCs, such as networked printers, use specialized network adapters. Printer network adapters also come in a variety of styles suited to different applications. By far, the most popular printer network adapter is Hewlett-Packard’s JetDirect card.
Chapter Summary
Dynamic routing automatically calculates the best path between two nodes and accumulates this information in a routing table. If congestion or failures affect the network, a router using dynamic routing can detect the problems and reroute data through a different path. Most modern networks primarily use dynamic routing.
Chapter Summary
Finding the best route for data to take across the network is an important router function.The best path will depend on the number of hops between nodes, the current network activity, the unavailable links, the network transmission speed, and the topology. To determine the best path, routers communicate with each other through routing protocols.
Chapter Summary
Firmware combines hardware and software. The hardware component of firmware is an electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip that stores data established at the factory. This data can be changed by configuration software.
Chapter Summary
For a desktop or tower PC, an expansion card network adapter is used. It must
match the system’s bus. A bus is the type of circuit used by the system board to transmit data to components. Network adapters may fit ISA, EISA, MCA, or PCI buses. New computers almost always use PCI buses.
Chapter Summary
Gateways are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two
dissimilar kinds of networks. Specifically, they may connect two systems that use different formatting, communications protocols, or architecture. To accomplish this
task, they must operate at multiple layers of the OSI Model.
Chapter Summary
Hubs that merely repeat signals are called passive hubs.
Chapter Summary
In addition to improving bandwidth usage, switches can create virtual local area networks (VLANs) by logically grouping several ports into a broadcast domain.The ports do not have to reside on the same switch or even on the same network segment.
Chapter Summary
In addition to network adapters that interface with network cabling, network
adapters can be designed for wireless transmission. A wireless network adapter uses an antenna to exchange signals with the network.This type of connectivity suits environments where cabling cannot be installed or where roaming clients must be supported.
Chapter Summary
In store and forward mode, switches read the entire data frame into their memory and check it for accuracy before transmitting it. Although this method is more time-consuming than the cut-through method, it allows store and forward switches to transmit data more accurately.
Chapter Summary
Intelligent hubs are also called managed hubs, because they can be managed from anywhere on the network. A standalone, stackable, or modular hub may include processing capabilities and, therefore, be considered intelligent.
Chapter Summary
Manufacturers are producing switches that can operate at Layer 3 (Network layer)and Layer 4 (Transport layer) of the OSI Model, making them act more like
routers. The ability to interpret higher-layer data enables switches to perform advanced filtering, statistics keeping, and security functions.
Chapter Summary
Many IRQ numbers are preassigned to system devices. For example, a keyboard
uses IRQ 1, COM1 and COM3 use IRQ 4, a floppy disk drive uses IRQ 6, LPT1
uses IRQ 7, the clock uses IRQ 8, and the math coprocessor uses IRQ 13.
Chapter Summary
Network adapters may also be externally attached, through the PCMCIA, USB, or
parallel port.
Chapter Summary
Network interface cards (NICs) come in a variety of types depending on logical
topology (Ethernet versus Token Ring), network transmission speed (for example,
10 Mbps versus 100 Mbps), connector interfaces (for example, BNC versus RJ-45), type of compatible system board or device, and manufacturer.
Chapter Summary
On servers, you may need to install multiple network adapters. For the hardware installation, you can repeat the same installation process used for the first network adapter, choosing a different slot. The trick to using multiple network adapters lies in correctly configuring the software for each.
Chapter Summary
Repeaters are the connectivity devices that perform the regeneration of a digital signal. They belong to the Physical layer of the OSI Model; therefore, they do not have any means to interpret the data they are retransmitting.
Chapter Summary
Some older NICs require hardware adjustments to indicate different variables, such as IRQ or I/O address settings.They may use jumpers, small plastic pieces containing a metal bridge that closes a circuit between two pins on the expansion card, or DIP
switches, small plastic toggle switches that can indicate an “on” or “off ” position.
Chapter Summary
Static routing is a technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use specific paths between nodes.
Chapter Summary
Switches are generally secure because they isolate one device’s traffic from other devices’ traffic. Because switches provide separate channels for (potentially) every device, they allow applications that transfer a large amount of traffic and that are
sensitive to time delays, such as videoconferencing, to make full use of the net-work’s capacity.
Chapter Summary
Switches subdivide a network into smaller logical pieces. They operate at the Data Link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI Model and can interpret MAC address information. In this respect, switches resemble bridges.
Chapter Summary
The networking industry has adopted the term “brouter” to describe routers that
take on some of the characteristics of bridges. Crossing a router with a bridge
allows you to forward data using nonroutable protocols, such as NetBEUI, and to connect multiple network types through one device. A brouter offers support at both Layers 2 and 3 of the OSI Model.
Chapter Summary
To change a network adapter’s firmware, you will need a bootable floppy disk
(DOS version 6.0 or higher) containing the configuration or the DOS install utility that shipped with the network adapter. To run the utility, you must start the com-puter with this floppy disk inserted.
Chapter Summary
To install a NIC, you must physically attach it to the bus (or port), install the NIC device drivers, and configure its settings.
Chapter Summary
Typically, gateways are used for one of four purposes: as an e-mail gateway, as an IBM host gateway, as an Internet gateway, or as a LAN gateway.
Chapter Summary
Unlike bridges and traditional switches, routers are protocol-dependent.They must be designed or configured to recognize a certain protocol before they can forward
data transmitted using that protocol.
Chapter Summary