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153 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ac
before a meal
ADL
activities of daily living
AM (A.M. , am)
morning
ASAP
as soon as possible
bid
twice a day
BM
bowel movement
BP, B/P
blood pressure
c (with hyphen)
with
cc
cubic centimeter
c/o
complains of
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CVA
cerebral vascular accident (stroke)
DNR
do not resuscitate
DON
director of nursing
H2O
water
HS (hs)
hour of sleep (bedtime)
I&O
intake and output
lb
pound
LPN
licensed practical nurse
ml (mL)
milliliter
noc, noct
night
NPO (npo)
nother per mouth (nils per os)
N&V
nausea and vomiting
O2
oxygen
oz (Oz)
ounce
pc
pediatrics
PM (P.M. , pm)
afternoon or evening
po (per os)
by mouth
prn
as necessary
PT
physical therapy
q
every
qd
every day
qh
every hour
q2h, q3h, q4h, ect
every 2 hours, every 3 hours, every 4 hours, ect
qid
four times a day
qod
every other day
R
rectal
RN
registered nurse
ROM
range of motion
s (with hyphen)
without
SOB
shortness of breath
STAT, stat
at once, immediately
tbsp
tablespoon
tid
three times a day
TPR
temperature, pulse, and respirations
tsp
teaspoon
UA (u/a)
urinalysis
VA (vs)
vital signs
WNL
within normal limits
advance directive
a document that allows a person to make his wishes regarding health care known to family members and health care workers
anorexia
loss of appetite
anxiety
feeling of uneasiness, dread, apprehension, or worry
aphasia
general term for a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to communicate with others; may be expressive (an inability to form words) or receptive (inability to understand words); often occurs following a stroke
aspiration
the accidental inhalation of foreign material (such as food, liquids, or vomitus) into the airway
atrophy
the loss of muscle size and strength
attitude
the side of ourselves that we display to the world, communicating outwardly how we feel about things
bedpan
a device used for elimination when a person is unable to get out of bed
bedside commode
a device used for elimination when a person is able to get out of bed, but unable to walk to the bathroom; it consists of a chair-like frame with a toilet seat and a removable collection bucket
body mechanics
the efficient and safe use of the body
cardiac arrest
the condition where the heart has stopped
catheter
a tube that is inserted into the body for the purpose of administering or removing fluids
catheter care
thorough cleaning of the perineal are (especially around the urethra) and the catheter tubing that extends outside of the body, to prevent infection
cell
the basic unit of life
chemical restraint
any medication that alters a person's mood or behavior, such as a sedative or tranquilizer
chronic
a word used to describe a disorder that is ongoing and often needs to be controlled through continuous medication or treatment
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a general term used to describe two related lung disorders, emphysema and chronic bronchitis; the leading cause of COPD is smoking
competency evaluation
an exam consisting of a written portion and a skills portion that must be passed at the end of the nursing assistant training course to obtain certification
constipation
a condition that occurs when the feces remain in the intestines for too long, resulting in hard, dry feces that are too difficult to pass
contractures
a condition that occurs when a joint is held in the same position for too long a time; the tendons shorten and become stiff, possibly causing permanent loss of motion in the joint
coordinated body movement
using the weight of the body to help with movement
culture
the beliefs (including religious or spiritual beliefs), values, and traditions that are customary to a group of people; a view of teh world that is handed down from generation to generation
defecate
to have a bowel movement
delegate
to authorize another person to perform a task on your behalf
diarrhea
the passage of liquid, unformed feces
diastole
the resting phase of the cardiac cycle; during which the myocardium relaxes, allowing the chambers to fill with blood
diastolic pressure
the pressure that the blood exerts against the arterial walls when the heart muscle relaxes; the second blood pressure measurement
do not resuscitate (DNR) order
an order written on a person's chart specifying the person's wishes that the usual efforts to save his life will not be made; also called a no-code order
durable power of attorney for health care
a type of advance directive that transfers the responsibility for handling a person's affairs and making medical decisions to a family member
edema
too much fluid in the tissues of the body
edentulous
without teeth
enema
a solution that is placed into the large intestine by way of the anus for the purpose of removing feces from the rectum
fecal (bowel) incontinence
the inability to hold one's feces, or the involuntary loss of feces from the bowel
fecal impaction
condition that occurs when constipation is not relieved
fever
a body temperature that is higher than normal
fracture
a broken bone
fracture pan
a wedge-shaped bedpan that is used when a person has an injury or disability that makes it too uncomfortable or dangerous to use a regular bedpan
hematuria
blood in the urine
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body
hemorrhage
severe, uncontrolled bleeding
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
holistic
word used to describe care of the whole person, physically and emotionally
homeostasis
a state of balance
HYPERglycemia
state of having too much glucose in the bloodstream
HYPERtension
high blood pressure; a blood pressure that is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg (systolic) and/or 90 mm Hg (diastolic)
HYPOglycemia
a dangerous drop in blood glucose levels
HYPOtension
low blood pressure; a blood pressure that is consistently lower than 90 mm Hg (systolic) and/or 60 mm Hg (diastolic)
incident (occurrence) report
preprinted document that is completed following an accident involving a patient or resident
intake and output (I&O) flow sheet
a document used for recording measurements of all of the fluids that enter and leave the body
leukocytes
white blood cells; responsible for fighting infection
life (draw) sheet
a small, flat sheet that is placed over the middle of the bottom sheet, covering the area of the bed from above the person's shoulders to below his or her buttocks
malignant
"evil"; adjective used to describe a cancerous tumor (that is, one that grows rapidly and spreads)
materials safety data sheet (MSDS)
document that summarizes key information about a chemical, its composition, which exposures may be dangerous, what to do if an exposure should occur, and how to clean up spills
medicaid
a federally funded and state-regulated plan designed to help people with low incomes to pay for health care
medical asepsis
techniques that are used to physically remove or kill pathogens
medicare
a type of insurance plan that is federally funded by Social Security and which all people 65 years and older, and some younger disabled people, are eligible to participate in
metastasis
process by which cancer cells spread from their original location in the body to a new location, which may be quite distant from the first
midstream ("clean catch") urine specimen
method of collecting urine that prevents contamination of the urine by the bacteria that normally exist in and around the urethra
mitered corner
a corner that is made b folding and tucking the sheet so that it lies flat and neat against the mattress
myocardial infarction
a "heart attack"; occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries become completely blocked, preventing blood from reaching the parts of the heart that are fed by the affected arteries
nonverbal communication
way of communicating that uses facial expressions, gestures, and body language, instead of written or spoken language
nosocomial infections
infections that patients or residents get while receiving treatment in a hospital or other health care facility; a type of health care-associated infection (HAI)
NPO status
doctor's order specifying that a patient or resident is to have "nils per os" (nothing by mouth)
nursing care plan
a specific plan of care for each patient or resident developed by the nursing team
objective
information that is obtained directly, through measurements or by using one of the five senses (sight, smell, taste, hearing, touch)
occupational safety and health administration (OSHA)
an agency within the department of labor that establishes safety and health standards for the workplace, to protect the safety and health of employees
omnibus budget reconciliation act (OBRA)
an act passed in 1987 to improve the quality of life for people who live in long-term care facilities by making sure that residents receive a certain standard of care
orthostatic hypotension
a sudden decrease in blood pressure that occurs when a person stands up from a sitting or lying position
osteoporosis
disorder characterized by the excessive loss of bone tissue
ostomy
an artificial opening in the abdomen for the elimination of feces
paraplegia
paralysis from the waist down
Parkinson's disease
a progressive neurologic disorder that is characterized by tremor and weakness in the muscles and a shuffling gait
perineal care (pericare)
cleaning the perineum and anus, as well as the vulva (in women) and the penis (in men)
peristalsis
involuntary wavelike muscular movements, such as those that occur in the digestive system to move chyme (partially digested food) through the intestines
personal protective equipment (PPE)
barriers that are worn to physically prevent microbes from reaching a health care provider's skin or mucous membranes, such as gloves, gown, masks, and protective eyewear
phantom pain
the feeling that a body part is still present, after it has been surgically removed (amputated)
physical restraint
device that is attached to or near a person's body to limit a person's freedom of movement or access to his or her body
postmortem care
the care of a person's body after the person's death
pressure ulcer
difficult-to-heal (and possibly even fatal) sore that forms when part of the body presses against a surface (such as a mattress or chair) for a long period of time; also known as pressure sores and decubitus ulcers
PRN (as-needed) care
personal hygiene care that is provided whenever a patient or resident needs it, throughout the day or night
pulse rate
the number of pulsations that can be felt over an artery in 1 minute; an indication of the heart rate
quadriplegia
paralysis from the neck down
range of motion
complete extent of movement that a joint is normally capable of without causing pain
respiration
the process the body uses to obtain oxygen from the environment and remove carbon dioxide (a waste gas) from the body
respiratory arrest
the condition where breathing has stopped
respiratory rate
the number of times a person breathes in 1 minute (one breath is both an inhalation and an exhalation)
restorative care
measures that health care workers take to help a person regain health, strength, and function; the means by which rehabilitation is achieved
rigor mortis
the stiffening of the muscles that usually develops within 2 to 4 hours of death
scope of practice
the range of tasks that a nursing assistant is legally permitted to do
sexuality
how a person perceives his or her maleness or femaleness
spyhgmomanometer
device used to measure blood pressure
standard precautions
precautions that a health care worker takes with each patient or resident to prevent contact with bloodborne pathogens; includes the use of barrier methods (such as gloves) as well as certain environmental control methods
stroke
disorder that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is completely blocked, causing the tissue to die; also known as a "brain attack" or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
subjective
information that cannot be objectively measured or assessed
symptoms
subjective evidence of disease, based on data that cannot be measured or observed first-hand, such as a patient's or resident's complaint of pain
systolic pressure
the pressure that blood exerts against the arterial walls when the heart muscle contracts; the first blood pressure measurement that is recorded
terminal illness
an illness or condition from which recovery is not expected
transfer
move from one place to another, for example, from the bed to a wheelchair
transfer (gait) belt
a webbed or woven belt with a buckle that is used to assist a weak or unsteady person with standing, walking, or transferring
urgency
a need to urinate immediately
urination
the process of passing urine from the body
validation therapy
a technique used for interacting with people who have dementia, in which the caregiver acknowledges the person's reality; rather than correcting the person, the caregiver attempts to distract the person and redirect the conversation whenever possible
verbal communication
a way of communicating that uses written or spoken language
vital signs
certain key measurements that provide essential information about a person's health