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233 Cards in this Set

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Define anisocoria.
unequal size of pupils
anisocoria
Define miosis.
abnormal constriction of the pupils (<2mm) + failure to dilate in dark
miosis
Define mydriasis.
abnormal dilation of the pupils (>6mm) + failure to constrict in light
Mosbys p292
mydriasis
Define trichiasis.
eyelashes growing toward eyeball instead of away
trichiasis
Define presbyopia.
progressively impaired accomodation (ability to focus) related to aging → resulting in blurry near vision
Mosbys p285
What is the etiology of presbyopia?
age-related → ciliary body weakens and lens becomes more rigid → resulting in impaired accomodation (ability to focus) → manifesting as blurry near vision
Define myopia.
near-sightedness; inability to focus on distant objects
What is the etiology of myopia?
cornea or lens too curved or eyeball diameter too long → causing light rays from distant objects to focus in front of retina; hereditary or associated with prematurity, excessive reading, close-up work
Define hyperopia.
far-sightedness; inability to focus on near objects
What is the etiology of hyperopia?
cornea or lens too flat or eyeball diameter too short → causing light rays from near objects to focus behind retina; hereditary
Define astigmatism.
inability to see fine detail at any distance due to inability to focus light to a single point
What is etiology of astigmatism?
cornea or lens is irregularly shaped → causing light rays to focus at different points → causing blurred vision
Define emmetropia.
perfect vision; light rays focus exactly on retina
Define anisometropia.
condition where eyes have unequal refractive power
(may be in different states of myopia, different states of hyperopia, or one may be myopic and the other hyperopic)
Define ametropia.
refractive error AKA error in focusing light on the retina resulting in decreased visual acuity
types include myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism
Define epiphora.
watery eyes or tearing
When documenting blindness, what is the difference between 20/200 and NLP?
20/200 = legal blindness; can see at 20 feet what a normal person sees at 200 feet

NLP = medical blindness; no light perception
Define legal blindness.
best corrected distant visual acuity of 20/200 or less in better eye
(or widest diameter of visual field subtending <20 degrees??)
What is the ddx for eye redness?
erythema of eyelids
hyperemia of conjunctival, episcleral, or ciliary vessels
subconjunctival hemorrhage

conjunctivitis
corneal disorders
acute glaucoma
acute uveitis
What is the ddx for ocular pruritus?
allergic eye disease
What is the ddx for epiphora?
obstruction of lacrimal drainage system → inadequate tear drainage
malposition of lower lid → inadequate tear drainage
corneal epithelium disturbance → reflex tearing
What is the ddx for photophobia?
usually d/t keratitis or anterior uveitis
other causes include albinism, aniridia, cone dystrophy, or fever associated with systemic infection
What is the ddx for eyestrain?
refractive error including presbyopia
inadequate illumination
latent ocular deviation
HAs are rarely d/t ocular disorders, true or false?
true
What type of conjunctivitis is characterized by purulent discharge?
bacterial
What type of conjunctivitis is characterized by watery discharge?
viral
What is the ddx for watery discharge?
viral conjunctivitis
keratitis
Pruritus, tearing, and ropy discharge characterizes?
allergic conjunctivitis
What is the ddx for monocular field loss?
usually d/t disease of retina or optic nerve
chronic glaucoma
retinal detachment
branch retinal artery or vein occlusion
optic neuritis
anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

all of which may be bilateral
What is the ddx for bitemporal hemianopsia?
lesion of optic chiasm
usually pituitary tumor
What is the ddx for homonymous hemianopsia?
lesion beyond optic chiasm
usually cerebrovascular disease or tumor
What are the most common causes of blindness?
cataract
glaucoma
age-related macular degeneration
diabetic retinopathy
Relative afferent pupillary defect indicates?
optic nerve disease
What is a relative afferent pupillary defect?
pupillary light reaction is reduced when light shined in affected eye but not when light shined in normal eye

tested via swinging light test
What is the ddx for ptosis?
usually d/t eyelid disease
neurologic causes include Horner syndrome, 3rd nerve palsy, or myasthenia gravis
Ocular redness that is diffuse across globe and inner eyelids indicates?
conjunctivitis
Circumcorneal redness indicates?
keratitis
acute glaucoma
intraocular inflammation
Convex lenses are used to correct?
hyperopia
presbyopia
Concave lenses are used to correct?
myopia
Cylindrical lenses are used to correct?
astigmatism
When does presbyopia usually occur?
45 y/o
Where is the macula found?
2 disc diameters temporal to the optic disc
normal macula & fovea
circus senilis
Which are brighter red in a normal optic fundus, arteries or veins?
arteries
Which are narrower in a normal optic fundus, arteries or veins?
arteries
Which side of the optic disc do the arteries and veins emerge from?
nasal side
What is the fovea?
central pit in center of macula of retina; contains high density of cones; responsible for sharp central vision and color vision
What is the most common cause of an abnormal cup-to-disc ratio?
glaucoma
What is the etiology of arcus senilis?
1. degeneration of cornea → age-related corneal degeneration → common if >60y/o
2. lipid deposition in cornea → hyperlipidemia (usually type II) → suspect if <40y/o
What is the clinical presentation of arcus/circus senilis?
opaque white-gray arc/ring lining periphery of cornea
What is the management for arcus senilis?
1. if age-related, no treatment necessary → does not affect vision
2. if suspected hyperlipidemia → order LIPID
Define papilledema.
swelling of the optic disc
What is the clinical presentation of papilledema?
loss of definition of optic disc margin; initially occurs superiorly and inferiorly then nasally and temporally; marked venous dilation, possible hemorrhage; initially no vision loss
Define proptosis AKA exophthalmos.
anterior bulging of the eye
What is the innervation of each ocular muscle?
1. oculomotor nerve (CN III) → superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique mm.
2. trochlear nerve (CN IV) → superior oblique m.
3. abducens nerve (CN VI) → lateral rectus m.
Explain the mnemonic LR6SO4R3.
Innervation of extraocular muscles:
LR6 = lateral rectus m. → abducens n. (CN VI)
SO4 = superior oblique m. → trochlear n. (CN IV)
R3 = rest (superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique mm.) → oculomotor n. (CN III)
What is the primary function of each extraocular muscle.
1. superior rectus → elevation of eye (upward), intorsion, adduction
2. inferior rectus → depression of eye (downward), extorsion, adduction
3. medial rectus → adduction of eye (toward nose)
4. lateral rectus → abduction of eye (away from nose)
5. superior oblique → intorsion of eye (rotate top toward nose), depression, abduction
6. inferior oblique → extorsion of eye (rotate top away from nose), elevation, abduction
What is the lacrimal gland?
gland located in superolateral eyelid; produces tears that moisten eye
Mosbys p280
What is the sclera?
dense avascular structure that supports the internal structure of the eye; appears anteriorly as white of eye
Mosbys p281
What is the iris?
circular muscular disc that constricts and dilates → controlling amount of light reaching retina
Mosbys p281
What is the ciliary body?
muscles that contract and relax → changing thickness of lens → controlling accomodation
Mosbys p281
What is the function of the levator palpebrae superioris?
elevation of superior eyelid
What is the pathway of light impulses?
light → retina transforms light impulses into electrical impulses → optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → optic radiation → visual cortex → cerebral cortex
Mosbys p283
Define presbyopia.
progressively impaired accomodation (ability to focus) related to aging → resulting in blurry near vision
Mosbys p285
What is the etiology of presbyopia?
age-related → ciliary body weakens and lens becomes more rigid → resulting in impaired accomodation (ability to focus) → manifesting as blurry near vision
Define diplopia.
double vision
What chronic diseases affect the eyes?
HTN, atherosclerosis, vascular disease, thyroid disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV
Mosbys p285
What are the risk factors for cataracts?
aging
exposure to UV light
smoking
DM
steroid medications
What are questions to ask about corrective lenses?
glasses or contacts, adequacy, how long worn, when last changed, cleaning, storage, insertion/removal of contacts, last eye exam
What equipment is needed for the eye exam?
Rosenbaum card (near vision)
Snellen chart (far vision)
penlight
ophthalmoscope
Mosbys p287
Describe the eye exam (detailed version).
1. test far central vision → perform Rosenbaum → ask patient to stand 20 feet away
2. test near central vision → Snellen → ask patient to hold card 14in away, cover right eye and read smallest line left to right; ask patient to cover left eye and read smallest line right to left; ask patient to uncover both eyes and read smallest line left to right every other letter (test without glasses first)
3. test peripheral vision → perform confrontation
4. inspect external eye
-eyebrow → size, extension, texture
-periorbital area → sagging, puffiness, edema
-eyelashes → presence, curve away from globe
-eyelids → ability to open/close completely; fasciculations when closed; ptosis; ectropion, entropion; erythema, edema, flakiness of margin
5. palpate eyelid → nodules, enlarged lacrimal gland
6. palpate eye → abnormally firm
7. inspect conjunctiva → ask patient to look upward while pulling lower eyelid downward; erythema, exudate, icterus, hemorrhage, conjunctivitis, subconjunctival hemorrhage, pterygium
8. inspect cornea → shine light tangentially to check cornea clarity; blood vessels should not be present since cornea is avascular, arcus senilis, circus senilis
9. inspect pupils (should be equal, round, reactive to light) → anisocoria, miosis, mydriasis
10. assess accommodation (only important if pupillary reaction abnormal) → hold penlight 10cm from bridge of nose, ask patient to look at far object then focus on penlight → pupils should constrict
11. perform EOMs → conjugate gaze, nystagmus, lid lag, ptosis
What is the purpose of the Rosenbaum or Snellen chart used for?
test optic nerve (CN II) → measurement of visual acuity (central vision) → discrimination of small details
Mosbys p287
What is the ddx for abnormal confrontation?
stroke, retinal detachment, central retinal vascular occlusion, optic neuropathy, pituitary tumor compression at optic chiasm
Mosbys p288
Eyebrows that are coarse or do not extend beyond lateral canthus may indicate?
hypothyroidism
Mosbys p288
Periorbital edema may indicate?
allergies
thryoid eye disease
renal disease → especially if child
Mosbys p288
What is xanthelasma?
plaque of cholesterol deposited in macrophages; irregularly shaped, flat or slightly raised, yellow; located in periorbital area, usally nasal portion of upper or lower eyelid; indicate lipid metabolism disorder
Mosbys p288
Define fasciculation.
muscle twitch; involuntary local muscle contraction
Fasciculations of the eyelids may indicate?
hyperthryoidism
Mosbys p288
What is the etiology of ptosis?
congenital or acquired weakness of levator palpebrae superioris muscle or oculomotor nerve (CN III) lesion
Mosbys p289
Normally, where are the eyelids in relation to the limbus?
upper eyelid → 2mm below upper limbus
lower eyelid → border of lower limbus
Mosbys p289
eyebrows fail to extend to lateral canthus → hypothyroidism
Define myopia.
near-sightedness; inability to focus on distant objects
What is the etiology of myopia?
cornea or lens too curved or eyeball diameter too long → causing light rays from distant objects to focus in front of retina; hereditary or associated with prematurity, excessive reading, close-up work
Define hyperopia.
far-sightedness; inability to focus on near objects
What is the etiology of hyperopia?
cornea or lens too flat or eyeball diameter too short → causing light rays from near objects to focus behind retina; hereditary
Define mydriasis.
abnormal dilation of the pupils (>6mm) + failure to constrict in light
Mosbys p292
Define miosis.
abnormal constriction of the pupils (<2mm) + failure to dilate in dark
Define anisocoria.
unequal size of pupils
Define astigmatism.
inability to see fine detail at any distance due to inability to focus light to a single point
What is etiology of astigmatism?
cornea or lens is irregularly shaped → causing light rays to focus at different points → causing blurred vision
Define nystagmus.
involuntary rhythmic movement of the eye; may occur in horizontal, vertical, rotary, or mixed direction; may be jerking
Mosbys p293
Define emmetropia.
perfect vision; light rays focus exactly on retina
Define photophobia.
abnormal sensitivity to light
Define trichiasis.
eyelashes growing toward eyeball instead of away
Crusting along the eyelashes may indicate?
allergies, blepharitis, rosacea, psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis
Mosbys p289
What are the glands of Zeis?
sebaceous glands located at the margin of the eyelid
What are the glands of Moll?
sweat glands located located at the margin of the eyelid
Define lagophthalmos.
inability to close eyelids completely over globe → may lead to dry cornea → increased risk of infection
What is the ddx for lagophthalmos?
severe ptosis, thyroid eye disease, 7th nerve palsy (Bells palsy or other causes), blepharoplasty surgery
Mosbys p289
Abnormally firm and resistant eyeball may indicate?
glaucoma, retrobulbar tumor, hyperthyroidism
Mosbys p290
How do you inspect for a foreign body in the eye?
1. ask patient to look down
2. gently pull eyelashes down and forward to break suction between lid and globe
3. evert eyelid on small cotton swab
4. inspect palpebrae conjunctiva
5. remove foreign body
6. ask patient to look up
7. apply downward pressure on eyelid to return it to normal position
Mosbys p290
anisocoria
miosis
mydriasis
trichiasis
proptosis
lagophthalmos
What is the etiology of pterygium?
unknown; associated with excessive UV light, wind, or sand exposure
How do you check corneal sensitivity?
touch wisp of cotton to cornea → patient should blink which requires intact sensory fibers of trigeminal n. (CN V) and motor fibers of facial n. (CN VII)
What cranial nerve controls corneal sensitivity?
trigeminal nerve (CN V)
Decreased corneal sensitivity may indicate?
HSV infection
Define heterochromia.
different colored irises
What is the ddx for acquired heterochromia?
trauma
tumors
glaucoma medications
Mosbys p291
heterochromia
Describe the eye exam.
1. ask about corrective lens or prosthesic eye
2. assess visual acuity → rosenbaum chart
3. inspect eyes with ambient light → eyebrows, periorbital area, eyelashes, eyelids, conjunctiva
4. inspect eyes with penlight → eyebrows, periorbital area, eyelashes, eyelids, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, iris, pupil
5. check anterior chamber depth
5. palpate periorbital area → soft tissue, EOMs, lacrimal gland
6. assess EOMs → H
7. assess convergence
8. assess corneal light reflexion (ask patient to look at distant object)
9. assess pupillary reaction
10. assess accommodation
11. perform fundoscopy → dim lights, optic cup & disc, cup-to-disc ratio, macule, arteries/veins
Failure of pupillary constriction with direct light but pupillary constriction with accomodation may indicate?
diabetes
syphillis
Mosbys p292
What is the ddx for miosis?
iridocyclitis
miotic eye drops → pilocarpine for glaucoma
opiates → morphine, heroin
Mosbys p292
What is the ddx for mydriasis?
iridocyclitis
acute angle glaucoma
oculomotor (CN III) damage
midbrain (reflex arc) lesions
hypoxia
coma
mydriatic drops → cycloplegic drops (paralyze ciliary body) → atropine
glaucoma medications
hallucinogens → LSD
Mosbys p292
Which is the correct term for yellow-pigmented eyes, conjunctival icterus or scleral icterus?
conjunctival icterus → the conjunctiva become become yellow-pigmented in hepatic disease, NOT the sclera
conjunctival icterus → hepatic disease
Conjunctival icterus indicates?
hepatic disease
What is a senile hyaline plaque?
dark gray pigment in sclera; found anterior to insertion of medial rectus muscle; benign
Mosbys p292
What is the ddx for enlarged lacrimal gland?
lymphoid infiltration
tumor
sarcoid disease
Sjogren's
Mosbys p292
During examination of EOMs, a few horizontal nystagmic beats are a normal variant, true or false?
true
Mosbys p293
Define conjugate gaze.
normal ability of eyes to move simultaneously in the same direction
What is the purpose of assessing corneal light reflex?
to determine if strabismus present; light reflex normally centered over pupils and symmetric; if asymmetric, perform cover-uncover test
How is visual acuity documented?
the distance the patient can see/the distance a normally sighted person can see

20/20 = perfect vision
20/200 = legal blindness (patient can see at 20 feet what a normally sighted person would see at 200 feet)
When documenting blindness, what is the difference between 20/200 and NLP?
20/200 = legal blindness; can see at 20 feet what a normal person sees at 200 feet

NLP = medical blindness; no light perception
If patient wears glasses, should you test visual acuity with glasses, without glasses, or both?
If routine exam → check with glasses
If problem-oriented exam → check without glasses
ophthalmologic examination lecture
If a patient forgets his glasses, how should you test visual acuity?
pinhole technique → poke pinhole in piece of paper, have patient look through it while testing visual acuity, should correct refractive errors
ophthalmology exam lecture
How are normal pupils documented?
PERRLA (pupils equal round reactive to light with accommodation)
How are normal extraocular muscles documented?
EOMI (extraocular muscles intact); no nystagmus, lid lag, or ptosis
What does OD stand for?
oculus dexter (RT eye)
What does OS stand for?
oculus sinister (LT eye)
What does OU stand for?
oculus uterque (both eyes)
List the special tests for the eye exam.
1. visual fields by confrontation → if suspected peripheral vision loss
2. palpate globe → if suspected glaucoma
3. cover-uncover test → if abnormal corneal light reflex and suspected strabismus
Define hemianopsia.
absence of vision in half a visual field
Define anopsia.
defect in visual field
Define quadrantanopsia.
anopsia in quarter of visual field
What type of visual field defect is this, if black presents impaired area of visual field
RT superior quadrantanopia
binasal hemianopsia
bitemporal hemianopsia
LT homonymous hemianopsia
RT homonymous hemianopsia
chemosis
Define chemosis.
swelling of the conjunctiva
What disease does this visual field characterize?
loss of peripheral vision → glaucoma
A lesion of the right optic nerve causes?
RT monocular blindness
A lesion of the optic chiasma causes?
bitemporal hemianospia
A lesion of the left optic nerve causes?
LT monocular blindness
A lesion of the right optic tract causes?
LT homonymous hemianopia
A lesion of the left optic tract causes?
RT homonymous hemianopia
Which part of the retina receives nasal (medial) visual field information?
temporal (lateral) retina
What is lid lag?
exposure of sclera superior to iris when evaluating EOMs in superior to inferior direction
Mosbys p293
Lid lag may indicate?
thyroid disease
Mosbys p293
When should mydriatics be avoided?
if patient has shallow anterior chamber
Mosbys p295
How do you assess anterior chamber depth?
1. shine penlight tangentially at limbus
2. iris should be completed lighted
3. iris not lighted on nasal side suggests shallow anterior chamber
Mosbys p295
Shallow anterior chamber increases risk of?
acute-angle glaucoma
Mosbys p295
What is the eye's blind spot?
optic cup & disc
What is the normal optic cup-to-disc ratio?
<0.3
An abnormally large optic cup-to-disc ratio may indicate?
glaucoma
xanthelasma
Describe the ophthalmoscopic exam.
1. set lens at 0
2. dim lights
3. ask patient to stare at point on wall
4. right, right, right → hold with right hand and look through right eye to examine patient's right eye
5. left, left, left
6. check for red reflex 1 ft away from patient
7. move in toward eye (making sure not to lose red reflex)
8. examine fundus → reset lens if myopic or hyperopic
-retina (should be uniformly yellow or reddish-pink but varies with skin color of patient) → lesions
-vascular supply → follow vessels distally from optic disc into all four quadrants (superior nasal, superior temporal, inferior nasal, inferior temporal) → av nicking
-optic disc (should be 1.5mm diameter, yellow to creamy-pink, sharp margins)
-macule & fovea → ask patient to look directly at light of ophthalmoscope (should be light dot surrounded by avascular area)
Absence of red reflex during the ophthalmoscopic exam may indicate?
improperly positioned ophthalmoscope
total opacity of pupil → cataract, hemorrhage into vitreous
What causes a red reflex?
light illuminating the retina
Mosbys p294
What is the fundus of the eye?
interior surface of the eye opposite the lens; includes retina, optic disc, macula, fovea, and posterior pole (retina between optic disc and macula)
When would you use the minus (red) diopter setting for the ophthalmoscopic examination?
if patient is myopic
Mosbys p294
When would you use the plus (green) diopter setting for the opthalmoscopic examination?
if patient is hyperopic or aphakic (lacks a lens)
Mosbys p294
Define aphakia.
absence of the lens of the eye
What is AV nicking?
when arteriole crosses venule → resulting in impaction of the venule → manifests as bulging on either side of the crossing
AV nicking may indicate?
hypertensive retinopathy
What is the normal ratio of retinal arteries to veins?
3:5 to 2:3
Mosbys p296
Describe the normal appearance of the retina?
yellow to reddish-pink; uniform
Mosbys p294
Describe the normal appearance of the optic disc?
1.5mm diameter; yellow to creamy-pink; sharp margins
Mosbys p296
How do you document abnormalities of the fundus?
via disc diameters (DD)

"Lesion present 2 DD from optic nerve at 2 o'clock position, 2/3 DD long and 1/3 DD wide."
Mosbys p296
What are cotton wool spots?
ill-defined yellow areas → caused by infraction of the nerve layer of the retina
Mosbys p297
What is the ddx for cotton wool spots?
vascular disease 2° to:
HTN
DM
Mosbys p297
AV nicking
cotton wool spots
AV nicking
What is the etiology of papilledema?
increased ICP transmitted along optic nerve
papilledema
flame hemorrhage
What is glaucomatous cupping?
glaucoma causes nerve fibers to die → neuro-retinal rim of optic nerve thins → enlarging optic cup
What is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness for Americans >65y/o?
macular degeneration
Mosbys p299
What helps prevent macular degeneration?
antioxidants → vitamin C 100mg, vitamin E 400iu, beta caroten 15mg, zinc oxide 80mg, cuprix oxide 2mg
Mosbys p299
glaucomatous cupping
What disease does this visual field characterize?
loss of central vision → macular degeneration
What is the clinical presentation of diabetic retinopathy?
Classified according to Keith-Wagner-Barker system:
Group I: arteriolar focal constrictions and attenuation (reduced flow)
Group II: arteriole diameter reduced by half, AV nicking
Group III: shiny retina, cotton wool spots, hemorrhages
Group IV: papilledema
Mosbys p300
What is the ddx for proptosis?
Unilateral:
retro-orbital tumor
Graves disease
other thyroid disease

Bilateral:
Graves disease
other thyroid disease
Mosbys p305
What is Graves disease?
autoimmune-related hyperthyroidism
Define episcleritis?
inflammation of the episclera (layer between conjunctiva and sclera)
Mosbys p305
What is the etiology of episcleritis?
unknown; associated with Crohn's disease, RA, autoimmune disorders
Mosbys p305
What is the clinical presentation of episcleritis?
few millimeter purplish elevation anterior to insertion of rectus muscles
Mosbys p305
episcleritis
What is the clinical presentation of band keratopathy?
gray horizontal band across cornea
Mosbys p306
What is the etiology of band keratopathy?
calcium deposition in superficial cornea; caused by chronic corneal disease, syphilis, renal failure, hyperparathyroidism
Mosbys p306
band keratopathy
What is the etiology of a corneal ulcer?
1. desiccation → lagophthalmos, lacrimal gland dysfunction
2. infection
Mosbys p306
Risk of bacterial corneal ulcer increases if ... ?
wear contact lenses
Mosbys p306
What is the uvea?
middle layer of the 3 concentric layers of the eye; composed of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
What is iridocyclitis?
inflammation of the uvea
Define retinoblastoma.
malignant neoplasm that is derived from retinal cells
Who is most commonly affected by retinoblastoma?
children <6y/o
Define leukocoria.
abnormal white reflection of the eye; may be detected when checking for red reflex
Leukocoria may indicate?
retinoblastoma
leukocoria
What is the ddx for pupils that fail to constrict with light stimulus?
iridocyclitis,;retinal degeneration; optic nerve damage; impaired innervation of sphincter pupillae muscle; mydriatics
Mosbys p307
What are Argyll Robertson pupils?
miotic, irregularly shaped, bilateral; fail to constrict with light stimulus but constrict with convergence
Mosbys p307
What is the ddx for Argyll Robertson pupils?
neurosyphilis
midbrain lesions (where afferent pupillary fibers synapse)
Mosbys p307
What is the ddx for anisocoria?
congenital (benign)
unilateral symphathetic or parasympthetic pupillary pathway destruction
eye medications
Mosbys p308
unilateral ptosis + pupil that is dilated, fixed, and deviated inferolaterally may indicate?
oculomotor nerve (CN III) damage
Mosbys p308
unilateral miosis + circumcorneal redness + pain may indicate?
acute uveitis
Mosbys p308
What is Horner syndrome?
interruption of sympathetic nerve supply to eye → resulting in ipsilateral miosis, mild ptosis
Mosbys p308
What is the ddx for Horner syndrome?
congenital
mediastinal tumor
brochogenic carcinoma
metastatic tumor
surgical trauma
Mosbys p308
Define cataract.
opacity in lens of eye
Mosbys p309
What is the etiology of cataracts?
lens protein denaturation; associated with aging, hypoparathyroidism, chronic steroid use; may be congenital if genetic defect, fetal insult, or maternal rubella during 1st trimester
Mosbys p309
Central cataracts are usually associated with?
aging
Mosbys p309
cataract
Lens opacification is present in almost everyone >65y/o, true or false?
true
Mosbys p309
What is normal eye pressure?
10-21 mmHg