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104 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Humanistic Psychotherapy: what is the phenomenological approach?
Phenomenological Approach: In order to understand a person, one must understand their subjective experience ("phenomenological field").
Humanistic Psychotherapy:
Focus is on _____behavior
Belief in the potential for self-determinism and _____-_________.
Humanistic Therapy:
Focus is on current behavior.
Belief in the potential for self-determinism and self-actualization.
Describe the therapeutic relationship in Humanistic Therapy?
Therapy involves authemtic, collaborative, and egalitarian relationship between therapist and client. Humanistic therapists reject traditional assessment techniques and diagnostic labels.
According to Carl Roger's Person-Centered Therapy, what is self-actualization?
"Self-actualizing tendency" is a source of motivation and growth.
Explain Roger's view of self.
Self is "I" or "Me" and relationships of "I" or "Me" to others and aspects of life.
The self must remain unified, organized, and whole to grow toward self-actualization.
What is Roger's view of maladaptive behavior?
Roger's views maladaptive bx as when the self becomes disorganized as a result of incongruence between self and experience, which can occur when person experiences conditions of worth. For example, the child finds out that positive regard from parents is conditional.
According to Rogers, what causes anxiety? What are maladaptive results of anxiety?
Incongruence causes anxiety. To alleviate anxiety, may use perceptual distortions or denial, which keeps a person from self-actualizing.
What is the goal of Roger's Person-Centered Therapy?
To achieve congruence between self and experience.
What are the 3 facilitative conditions in Person-Centered Therapy?
1. Unconditional positive regard.
2. Genuineness (congruence)
3. Accurate empathic understanding
EMPATHY is key!
What is the key assumption of Gestalt Therapy?
The person is capable of assuming personal responsibility for his own thoughts, feelings, and actions, and living as an integrated "whole".
4 Principles of Gestalt Therapy:
1. People tend to seek closure
2. Person's gestalts (perceptions of parts as wholes) reflects his current needs.
3. Person's bx represents a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
4. Person experiences the world in accordance with figure/ground.
According to Fritz Perls, a gestalt therapist, personality consists of the _________ and _____-___________.
According to Fritz Perls, a gestalt therapist, personality consists of the self and self-image.
According to Perls, what is the self?
The self is the creative aspect.
Promotes self-actualization (ability to live as an integrated person).
According to Perls, what is the self-image?
The self-image is the darker side, hinders growth and self-actualization by imposing external standards.
Whether the self or self-image dominates depends on ________________.
Whether the self or self-image dominates depends on early interactions with the environment. Parents should give support and give opportunities to overcome frustration.
What is Gestalt Therapy's view of maladaptive behavior?
"Growth disorder": the abandonment of self for self-image and a resulting lack of integration.
Maladaptive behavior stems from a disturbance between the self and the external environment (person can't maintain homeostasis).
According to Gestalt Therapy, what are the 4 boundary disturbances?
1. Introjection
2. Projection
3. Retroflection
4. Confluence
What is introjection?
Introjection--person accepts concepts from the environment without accepting them.
Person tends to be overly compliant in treatment.
What is projection?
Projection--disown aspects of self and assign them to other people.
Can result in paranoia
What is retroflection?
Retroflection--do to oneself what one wants to do to others.
Person turns anger inward.
What is confluence?
Confluence--there is no boundary between self and environment.
Person can't tolerate differences between self and others.
What are the goals of Gestalt therapy?
Gestalt Therapy Goals: Help the client achieve integration of aspects of self to become a unified whole.
The curative factor in therapy is awareness
What are techniques of Gestalt Therapy?
1. Look at the here-and-now
2. Transference is counterproductive
3. No questions (client discouraged from asking questions)
4. Use "I" language (to increase responsibility)
5. Games of Diaglogue (Enactment)
6. Dreamwork (helps recover disowned parts of their personalities)
In Gestalt Therapy, what are some games of dialogue?
Empty chair technique
Top Dog/Underdog
Play self with someone who has unfinished business
What is the emphasis of Existential Therapy?
Existential Therapy emphasizes the human conditions of depersonalization, loneliness, and isolation.
People are not static, but instead, are in a constant state of becoming.
According to Existentialists, what is their view of maladaptive behavior?
Maladaptive behavior is a natural part of the human condition.
E.g., anxiety is a normal response to constant threat of nonbeing/death.
What are the treatment goals in Existential Therapy?
Help clients overcome their troublesome feelings (i.e., meaninglessness), so they can live in more committed, self-aware, authentic, and meaningful ways.
Help client recognize their freedom and accept responsibility to change.
What are the main tools of Existential Therapy?
1. Therapist-client relationship is key.
2. Paradoxical intention
What is paradoxical intention?
A therapeutic tool aimed at reducing fear by focusing in an exaggerated or humorous way on the feared situation.
Reality therapy is based on _________ theory.
Reality therapy is based on control theory.
What is control theory?
Control theory states that human behavior is purposeful and originates from within the individual rather than from external forces. PEOPLE CAN TAKE CONTROL OF THEIR OWN LIVES.
According to Glasser, what are the 4 psychological needs and the one physical need?
**Psychological needs:
1. Belonging
2. Power
3. Freedom
4. Fun
**Physical need: survival
According to Glasser, ________ _______ is when a person fulfills needs in a responsible way. This is the opposite or the _____________ __________, which underlies mental disorders.
According to Glasser, SUCCESS IDENTITY is when a person fulfills needs in a responsible way. This is the opposite or the FAILURE IDENTITY, which underlies mental disorders.
What are the key therapeutic goals and techniques of reality therapy?
1. Help identify responsible ways to fulfill needs
2. Rejects the concept of mental illness and the medical model.
4. Transference is detrimental
6. Emphasizes VALUE JUDGMENTS (ability to judge right/wrong)
7. Teaches clients specific behavior to fulfill needs
Family Therapy: What is general systems therapy (Ludwig von Betalanffy)?
General Systems Therapy: Family therapists view the family as an OPEN SYSTEM that continuously receives input from and discharges output to the environment and is more adaptible to change.
What is Family Therapy's view on homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the tendency for the family to act in ways that maintain the STATUS QUO. If one member improves, the disturbance is likely to reappear elsewhere in the family.
Family Therapy: What is the identified patient?
The identified patient is the SYMPTOM BEARER of the family, the SCAPEGOAT. Their symptoms serve to maintain the family's homeostasis.
According to Bateson, what is cybernetics?
Cybernetics is a "FEEDBACK LOOP" through which a system receives info.
Cybernetics: The _________ ______________ _____ decreases deviation to maintain the status quo.
The NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP decreases deviation to maintain the status quo.
Cybernetics: The ____________ __________ ____ amplifies deviation or change, and therefore disrupts the system. This is positive if promoting change in a dysfunctional family.
The POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP amplifies deviation or change, and therefore disrupts the system. This is positive if promoting change in a dysfunctional family.
Who are some prominent theorists/therapists of Communication/Interaction Family Therapy?
Communication/Interaction Family Therapy:
Don Jackson
Virginia Satir
Jay Haley
Communication/Interaction Family Therapy: What is double bind communication?
Double bind communication: conflicting negative injunctions: DO that and you'll be punished/DON'T do that and you'll be punished. CONTRADICTORY MESSAGES
Double-bind communication has been linked to what disorder?
What are the key assumptions of Communication/Interaction Family Therapy?
2. Communication patterns are SYMMETRICAL OR COMPLEMENTARY.
The __________ ________ is the content or informational aspect of communication. The _________ ________ is the nonverbal aspect that makes a statement about the relationship between communicators.
The report function is the content or informational aspect of communication. The command function is the nonverbal aspect that makes a statement about the relationship between communicators.
What is Symmetrical Communication vs. Complementary Communication?
Symmetrical Communication: EQUAL (but can escalate into one upmanship)
Complementary Communication: UNEQUAL, maximizes differences between communicators--e.g., dominant vs. submissive
What is the Principle of Equifinality?
Principle of Equifinality: regardless of where in a system the change occurs, the end result will be the same.
What is Communication/Interaction Therapy's view of maladaptive behavior?
CIRCULAR MODEL OF CAUSALITY: regards symptoms as both the CAUSE and EFFECT of dysfunctional communication patterns.
What are some dysfunctional communication patterns?
Mind Reading
What are the goals of Communication/Interaction Therapy?
To alter INTERACTIONAL PATTERNS that maintain symptoms.
What are some direct and indirect techniques of Communication/Interaction Therapy?
Direct Techniques: point out family's problematic interaction patterns.
What are paradoxical strategies?
A therapeutic technique where the family is instructed to engage in the dysfunctional behavior and reframing.
Whose name is associated with Extended Family Systems Therapy?
Extended Family Systems Therapy:
What is differentiation of self?
Differentiation of Self from the family.
If not, UNDIFFERENTIATED EGO MASS, which is when the family members are highly emotionally fused.
Extended Family Systems Therapy: Define Emotional Triangle
Emotional Triangle: When a 2 person system experiences instability, a 3rd person may be recruited into the system to increase stability and reduce tension.
Extended Family Systems Therapy: Define: Nuclear Family Emotional System
Nuclear Family Emotional System: how the family deals with tension
Extended Family Systems Therapy:
Define Family Projection Process
Family Projection Process: process by which parental conflicts are transmitted to children-->leads to lower levels of differentiation in the child
Extended Family Systems Therapy: Define Multigenerational Transmission Process.
Multigenerational Transmission Process: severe dysfunction is the result of transmission and escalation through several generations.
What is the goal of Extended Family Systems Therapy?
To increase differentiation of all family members.
What are techniques of Extended Family Systems Therapy?
1. Family relationships involve triangles--> the therapist becomes the 3rd member in a therapeutic triangle.
2. Construct a GENOGRAM
3. Therapist is a COACH--partners talk to the therapist
4. QUESTIONING: Therapist asks questions to defuse emotion and help partners think clearly about their problems.
How did Salvador Minuchin's Structural Family Therapy develop?
From Minuchin's work with low SES family, he developed Structural Family Therapy, a here-and-now, directive, concrete approach.
What is a main premise of Structural Family Therapy?
All families have an implicit structure that determines how family members related to one another.
Structural Family Therapy:
Define Power hierarchies.
Power hierarchies: how members combine during times of conflict.
Structural Family Therapy: Define Family Subsystems
Family Subsystems: husband-wife, parent-child
Structural Family Therapy:
Define boundaries.
Boundaries: rules that determine the amount of contact allowed between family members.
When boudaries are overly rigid, family members are ___________. When boundaries are too diffuse, family members are _________.
When boudaries are overly rigid, family members are DISENGAGED. When boundaries are too diffuse, family members are ENMESHED (overly dependent).
Structural Family Therapy:
What are three chronic boundary problems?
1. Detouring
2. Stable Coalition
3. Triangulation
What is detouring?
Detouring: parents focus on the child by either overprotecting the child or blaming the child for the family's problems.
What is stable coalition?
Stable coalition: a parents and chld gang up against the other parent.
What is triangulation?
Triangulation: unstable coalition, each parent demands that the child side with him/her against the other parent.
What is the Structural Family Therapy's view of maladaptive behavior?
Structural Family Therapy: views family dysfunction as a result of INFLEXIBLE FAMILY STRUCTURES that prohibit family from dealing with stressors in a healthy way.
What are the therapeutic goals of Structural Family Therapy?
Structural Family Therapy: Long-term goal of RESTRUCTURING the family.
Short-term goals are achieved using therapeutic techniques from other therapies.
What is the premise of change according to Structural Family Therapy?
Structural Family Therapy: based on the premise that ACTION PRECEDES UNDERSTANDING. Thus, geared more toward changing BEHAVIOR than fostering insight.
Structural Family Therapy:
What is Joining:
Joining: therapist joins the family in a position of leadership and BLENDS with the family.
TRACKING: uses family's values, life themes in conversation.
MIMESIS: Adopts affect and communication style of the family.
Structural Family Therapy: What is the purpose of Evaluating the Family Structure?
To construct a FAMILY MAP: evaluate family transactional patterns, power hierarchies, boundaries.
Structural Family Therapy: What is involved in Restructuring the Family?
Restructuring the Family involves: deliberately unbalancing the family's homeostasis to facilitate tranformation of structure.
What are two major techniques of Restructuring the Family?
1. Enactment: role-play relationship patterns so they can be identified and altered.
2. Reframing: relabeling behavior so they can be viewed in a more positive way.
Strategic Family Therapy (Jay Haley: What is Haley's view of maladaptive behavior?
Strategic Family therapists emphasize the role of COMMUNICATION in maladaptive behavior, esp. how it is used to increase one's CONTROL in a relationship.
What is Strategic Family Therapy's view of a symptom?
A symptom is an IP PHENOMENON--a strategy for controlling a relationship when all other strategies have failed. A symptom becomes pathological when 1 or both parties deny intent to control the other person.
What are the goals of Strategic Family Therapy?
Therapy goals: to alleviate CURRENT SYMPTOMS by altering family's transactions and organization, esp. hierarchied and generational boundaries.
Strategic Family Therapy consists of a highly structured 1st session--what are the 4 stages?
1. Social Stage
2. Problem Stage
3. Interaction Stage
4. Goal Setting
The Social Stage consists of:
Social Stage--therapist observes family interactions and encourages involvement of all family members
The Problem Stage consists of:
Problem Stage--therapist gathers info. about the reasons why the family came to therapy.
The Interaction Stage consists of:
Interaction Stage--family members discuss the identified problems.
The Goal Setting Stage consists of:
Making a contract that defines the goals of treatment.
In Strategic Family Therapy, the therapist plays an ______ and _____-______ role.
In Strategic Family Therapy, the therapist plays an active and take-charge role.
In Strategic Family Therapy, what are Directives?
2. PARADOXICAL INTERVENTIONS--use resistance to change behavior
What are ordeals?
Ordeals: unpleasant tasks that client must do when symptoms occur.
Consist of: restraining, reframing, prescribing the symptom
Milan Systemic Family Therapy:
Define circular patterns of action and reaction
Circular patterns of action and reaction: when family patterns become fixed-->bad
What are the goals of Milan Systemic Family Therapy?
1. Help family members see their CHOICES and use their choosing ability.
2. UNDERSTANDING: see relationships and problems in different ways-->make new choices
Milan Systemic Family Therapy: techniques: What is a strategy conference?
Therapeutic team (1 or 2 therapists meet with the family while others observe. Then, have a STRATEGY CONFERENCE to share suggestions.
Milan Systemic Family Therapy: techniques: What strategies are used to help family members recognize differences in their perceptions?
1. Hypothesizing
2. Neutrality of therapist
3. Paradox
4. Circular Questions
Milan Systemic Family Therapy: techniques: What is hypothesizing?
Hypothesize about functioning of the family system
Milan Systemic Family Therapy: techniques: What is the purpose of Paradoxical Strategies?
Use paradoxical strategies (COUNTERPARADOX & POSITIVE CONNOTATION) to provide family with info. to aid in family making solutions to their own problems.
Milan Systemic Family Therapy: techniques: What is the purpose of circular questions?
Circular questions: used to identify differences in perceptions of family events.
Behavioral Family Therapy is based on the theories of ____________and ______________.
Behavioral Family Therapy is based on the theory of operant conditioning and social learning theories. Premise that BEHAVIOR is maintained by its CONSEQUENCES.
Behavioral Family Therapy:
What are the goals of Marital Therapy?
1. Increase couple's recognition and initiation of pleasurable interactions.
2. Decrease couple's aversive interactions.
3. Teach the couple effective problem-solving & communication skills
4. Teach the couple to use a CONTINGENCY CONTRACT to resolve persisting problems.
What is the primary goal of Object Relations Family Therapy?
To resolve each family member's attachment to family INTROJECTS.
What are techniques of Object Relations Family Therapy?
Interpreting transferences, resistances, and other factors to foster INSIGHT.
What are the three stages of Group Therapy?
1. Members attempt to determine the group's structure and meaning, and to look primarily to the therapist for approval and acceptance.
2. Conflict and rebellion: advice-giving is replaced by criticism and judgemental statements, members may show hostility toward the therapist.
3. COHESIVENESS, increased self-disclosure, attendance, and members show concern when a member is absent
In group therapy, what are the therapist's two roles?
Self-disclosure is done judiciously
Focus on here-and-now
In Group Therapy, what are the curative factors?
IP input
What is cohesiveness in Group Therapy?
Cohesiveness is a critical part of group therapy, analagous to therapist-client relationship in individual therapy.
How can one avoid premature termination in Group Therapy?
Prescreening and post-selection preparation helps reduce premature termination and enhances outcomes in group therapy.