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98 Cards in this Set

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Psychodynamic Theory:
ID: The id operates on the _____________, which means it wants ______________ to avoid tension.
ID--operates on the pleasure principle, which means it wants immediate gratification to avoid tension.
ID: The id relies on reflex actions and ________, that is, forming a dream, hallucination, or other mental image to satisfy its needs.
The id relies on reflex actions and primary process thinking, that is, forming a dream, hallucination, or other mental image to satisfy its needs.
EGO: The ego develops at ___ months in response to the id's inability to gratify all its needs.
The ego develops at 6 months.
EGO: The ego operates on the _________________, that is, it defers gratification until an appropriate action is available in reality.
The ego operates on the reality principle.
EGO: The ego relies on _____________, which is realistic, rational, and planning. The ego ________ the conflicting demands of the id, reality, and the superego.
The ego relies on the reality principle. The ego mediates the conflicting demands of the id, reality, and superego.
SUPER EGO: The superego develops at age _______. It represents __________ and standards as conveyed by ___________ through reward and punishment. The superego attempts to permanently block the _____'s socially unacceptable desires.
The superego develops at age 4-5 years. It represents society's values and standards as conveyed by one's parents through reward and punishment.
What are Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages of Development?
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital (OAPLG)
During each Psychosexual Stage,the ___'s ______ is centered on a different part of the body. ____ or ______ gratification results in a different personality oucome.
During each stage, the id's libido (sexual energy) is centered on a different part of the body. Over or under gratification results in a different personality outcome.
According to Psychoanalytic Theory, how does anxiety develop?
Increased ANS activity alerts the ego to impending internal or external threats. If the ego can't ward off danger through realistic means, resort to defense mechanisms.
What are the two basic characteristics of defense mechanisms?
Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level and serve to distort reality.
What is repression?
The most basic defense mechanism and the foundation of all neuroses. It keeps the id's drives and needs in the unconscious.
What is reaction formation?
Avoiding an anxiety-evoking instinct by expressing its opposite.
What happens if one relies on defense mechanisms?
Reliance on defense mechanisms prevents the ego from resolving that caused the anxiety and the anxiety will then re-emerge under stress.
What is Freud's vieq of maladative behavior?
Psychopathology stems from an unconscious, unresolved conflict that occurred during childhood.
What is Freud's view of the development of phobias?
Phobias are the result of displacement of anxiety into an object or event involved in unresolved conflict.
What is Freud's view of the development of depression?
Depression is due to object loss and anger toward the object turned inward.
What is Freud's view of mania?
Maniea is a defense against libidinal or aggressive urges that threaten to overwhelm the ego.
What is the goal of Psychoanalytic Therapy?

Psychoanalytic assumes ______ _______, that is, all behavior is meaningful and serves some psychological function.
The goal of Psychoanalytic Therapy is to bring the unconscious into conscious awareness and integrate previously repressed material into the personality. Psychoanalytic therapy assumes psychic determinism--al behavior is meaningful and serves some psychological function.
What are the targets of Psychoanalysis?
Free Association
Dream Analysis
What is the purpose of free association?
Allows unconscious material to go into the conscious.
Dream analysis is the ________ _____ to the _____________.
Dream analysis is the royal road to the unconscious.
Give some examples of resistance.
Coming late, avoidance, etc.
Define transference.
Transference is a form of ___________.
Transference is when a client projects their feelings for others onto the therapist (can be positive or negative). It is how a client misperceives present events in terms of past events.
Transference is a form of resistance.
When does positive transference typically occur?
Positive transference usually occurs early and is likely to be replaced by negative transference.
What are the 3 stages of Psychoanalysis?
What is interpretation, in Psychoanalytic terms?
Connects behavior to unconscious processes.
What is Freud's view of countertransference?
COuntertransference is the therapist's inappropriate and deterimental emotional reactions to a client.
According to Freud, improvement is related to what 3 factors?
Working Through
How does Adler's Individual Psychology differ from Freudian psychology?
1. Adler emphasizes social factors in developmental psychology.
2. Adler believed all behavior is purposeful.
3. Adler uses a teleological approach.
The teleological approach purports that behavior is motivated by a person's __________ _______.
The teleological approach purports that behavior is motivated by a person's future goals.
What are 3 key concepts in Adler's Individual Psychology?
1. Inferiority Feelings
2. Striving for Superiority
3. Style of Life
What are inferiority feelings?
Inferiority feelings develop during childhood as a result of real or perceived biological, psychological, and social weaknesses.
Wat is striving for superiority?
Perfect completion.
What are the two types of styles of life?
1. Healthy Style of Life: social interest.
2. Mistaken Style of Life: self-centeredness. Pampered children don't develop social feelings. Neglected children seek revenge.
What is Adler's view of mental disorders?
Mental disorders are maladaptive attempts to compensate for feelings of inferiority, preoccupation of achieving personal power, and lack of social interest.
Adlerian psychotherapy views therapt as a ________________relationship.
Therapy is a collaborative relationship.
What are techniques of Adlerian psychotherapy: Define lifestyle investigation?
What is his approach to transferences and resistances.
Adler believed all behavior is ____-__________ and ___________.
Lifestyle Investigation: Look at the family constellation, hidden goals, basic mistakes.
Adlerian psychotherapists interpret tranferences and resistances.
Adler believed all behavior is goal-directed and purposeful.
Adler views the misbehavior young children to have 1 of 4 goals.
The misbehavior of young children is viewed as seeking: attention, power, revenge, or to display deficiency. Each reflects a desire to belong.
Adler applied his therapy to ___________ and ________ using the STEP and STET.
Adler applied his therapy to parents and teacher-student relationship (as well as individuals, groups,and families.)
How does Jung's Analytical Psychotherapy differ from Freud's views?
1. Jung defined libido as general psychic energy.
2. Behavior is not only determined by past events, but by future goals and aspirations.
3. Personality development continues throughout the lifespan.
According to Jung, what are the levels of the conscious/unconscious?
1. Conscious--governed by the ego.
2. Personal Unconscious--experiences that were once conscious and now repressed or forgotten, or were unconsciously perceived.
3. Collective unconscious--latent memory traces passed down from one generation to the next.
What are archetypes?
Part of the collective unconscious. Archetypes are certain phenomenon that are viewed in a universal way (e.g., the self, persona, shadow, anima, animus)
According to Jung, what are the two attitudes?
Extraversion and introversion
According to Jung, what are the 4 basic psychological functions?
According to Jung, _____________ is the integration of conscious and unconscious aspects of one's psyche, leading to the development of one unique ________. The outcome is ___________ in later years.
According to Jung, individuation is the integration of conscious and unconscious aspects of one's psyche, leading to the development of one unique identity. The outcome is wisdom in later years.
What is Jung's view of maladaptive behavior?
Symptoms are unconscious messages that something is awry with you and that there is a task that should be fulfilled.
What is the goal of Jungian therapy?
The goal of Jung's therapy is to rebridge the gap between the conscious and the personal and collective unconscious.
What are techniques of Jungian therapy?
Face-to-face therapy
Focus is on the here-and-now
According to Jung, what is the purpose of interpretations?
Dream interpretation is the ____________________.
Interpretations help the client become aware of the inner world. Dream interpretation is the collective unconscious expressed symbolically.
According to Jung, transferences are _________________.
Transferences are projections of the unconscious.
Jung believed countertransference is a useful or ununseful tool in therapy?
A useful tool
The Neo-Freudians emphasize the role of _____________ and other _______influences.
The Neo-Freudians emphasize the role of interpersonal and other social influences.
Some prominent neo-Freudians are:
Karen Horney
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erich Fromm
What is Horney's view of anxiety? How can anxiety be alleviated?
Anxiety results from childhood interpersonal relationships. Anxiety can be alleviated by:
1. Moving toward people (compliance).
2. Moving away (more detached)
3. Moving against (aggressive)
Harry Stack Sullivan emphasizes the role of __________ ________ in personality development.
Harry Stack Sullivan emphasizes the role of cognitive factors in personality development.
According to Harry Stack Sullivan, what are the 3 modes of cognitive experience?
1. Prototaxic mode (1st few months; discrete events)
2. Parataxic mode (causal connections between events that aren't actually related)
3. Syntaxic mode (end of 1st year; logical, sequential, and modifiable thinking)
According to Sullivan, maladaptive behavior is due to _________ _____________.
According to Sullivan, maladaptive behavior is due to parataxic distortions.
According to Sullivan, the therapist serves as the _____________________.
According to Sullivan, the therapist serves as the expert in interpersonal relationships.
Who are some prominent object relations theorists?
Melanie Klein
Ronald Fairbairn
Margaret Mahler
Otto Kernberg
Margaret Mahler's theory of personality development (object relations), describes the process by which an infant assumes its own identity. What are the 3 stages?
1. Normal autism (1st month--infact is oblivious to external environment)
2. Normal Symbiosis (1st & 2nd mos.--fused with its mother)
3. Separation-Individuation (starts at 4 mos.--development of object relations)
What is a major goal of the Separation-Individuation stage of personality development (Mahler)?
By age 3 years, the child develops a permanent sense of self and object (object constancy) and sees others as both separate and related.
Accoding to Object Relations theorists, maladaptive behavior results from?
Maladaptive behavior results from abnormalities in early object relations.
Mahler traces psychopathology to problems during which stage?
According to Objects Relations theory, what is splitting?
Splitting: in infancy, there is a split between mental representations of self and others into "good" and "bad". Inadequate resolution leads to maladaptive behavior.
What is Kernberg's view of Borderline Personality Disorder?
BPD never integrated positive and negative experiences with others and thys shifts between contradicting images (overidealizing and devaluing)
What is the goal of Object Relations Therapy?
Therapeutic goals are to provide the client with support, acceptance, and conditions that restore their ability to relate to others in a meaningful way.
What is the focus of Self Psychology?
Self Psychology focuses on early childhood factors that affect the development of a cohesive sense of self.
What is Heinz Kohut's view of narcissism?
Healthy Narcissism is key. It is the parents' ability to provide child with factors that lead to a cohesive sense of self.
According to self psychologists, what happens is the parents fail to satisfy the child's needs?
1. Grandiose self--parents fail to satisfy child's needs, but this is modified with maturity, unless:
2. Pathological narcissism--develops if parents consistently respond to child in unempathic ways. If parents do not provide empathic mirroring.
What are the main goals and techniques of therapy with a self psychology orientation?
Therapy provides the narcissistic patient with an environment that makes up for early deprivation and promotes personal growth and development of a cohesive sense of self. EMPATHY is key.
Explain the key characteristics of Brief Psychodynamic Therapy:
1. Time limited (6-30 sessions)
2. Concrete goals and focus on a particular symptom or issue.
3. Interpretations focus on present circumstances and behavior
4. Development of transference neurosis is not encouraged, but positive transference is ok.
Interpersonal Therapy was developed by Klerman and Weissman to treat _________, which is viewed as related to problems with __________ ______ and __________ __________.
IP tx was developed to treat depression, which is viewed as related to problems with social roles and interpersonal relationships. The focus of treatment is on CURRENT social relationships.
IP Therapy addresses 1 or more of 4 problems areas, incl:
1. Grief
2. IP role disputes
3. Role transitions
4. IP deficits
What are techniques of IP therapy?
Encouragement of affect
Communication analysis
Role modeling
The focus of Humanistic Psychotherapies ("Third Force") is _________ characteristics.
Shared characteristics.
What is cultural encapsulation?
Cultural encapsulation is the opposite of cultural responsiveness. When a therapist defines everyone's reality by their own STEREOTYPES, disregard CULTURAL DIFFERENCES and their own CULTURAL BIASES.
Emic vs. Etic orientation
EMIC: culture specific theories
ETIC: culture general, universal orientation
What are three aspects of cultural competence?
2. DYNAMIC SIZING: when to generalize vs. when to individualize
3. Culture-specific expertise
What are some culturally responsive strategies?
1. Make treatment more accessible
2. Select a treatment modality that fits the culture and level of acculturation, and incorporates elements of culture (cuento therapy)
3. CREDIBILITY: therapist is effective and trustworthy
4. GIVING: client feels he has received something from therapy.
Decribe the following two communication styles:
High context
Low Context
High Context: Grounded in the situation, relies on nonverbal cues
Low context: Relies on the explicit verbal part of the message
What are the effects of oppression in African Americans?
1. INTERNALIZED OPPRESSION: system-beating, system blaming, avoidance of whites, and/or denial of political sig. of race.
2. CONCEPTUAL INCARCERATION: adopt a white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant world view.
3. SPLIT SELF SYNDROME: Good vs. bad (African American identity)
4. Decreased ability to utilize internal and external resources
Describe cultural vs. functional paranoia
1. Cultural paranoia: healthy response, won't disclose to white therapist
2. Functional paranoia: unhealthy response, won't disclose to any therapist of any race due to mistrust.
What are the 4 categories of acculturation?
1. INTEGRATION: person maintains his own culture, but also incorporates many aspects of the dominant culture (bicultural identity)
2. ASSIMILATION: Person accepts the majority culture without relinquishing his own culture
3. SEPARATION: person withdraws from the dominant culture and accepts his own culture
4. MARGINALIZATION: Person does not identify with either his culture or the dominant culture.
What are the 5 stages of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (MID)?
1. Conformity
2. Dissonance
3. Resistance and Immersion
4. Introspection
5. Integrative Awareness
Describe the Conformity Stage:
Conformity: positive attitude and preference for the dominant cultural values and depreciating attitudes towards one's own culture.
Prefers therapist from the majority group.
Describe the Dissonance Stage:
Dissonance: COnfusion and conflict over the contradictory appreciating and depreciating attitudes one has toward the self and others. Prefers therapist from minority group.
Perceive their personal problems as related to racial/cultural identity issues.
Describe the Resistance and Immersion Stage:
Resistance-Immersion: Actively reject the dominant society and exhibit appreciating attitudes toward self and members of own group.
Prefer therapist from minority group.
Perceive problems as the result of oppression.
Describe the Introspection Stage:
Uncertainty about rigidity of their beliefs in Stage 3 (Rigidity-Immersion); conflict between loyalty to one's group and personal autonomy.
Prefer minority therapist, but are more open.
Describe the Integrative Awareness Stage:
Integrative Awareness: Multicultural perspective
Therapist who shares their world view.
What are the 4 stages of the Black Racial (Nigrescence) Identity Development Model (Cross)?
1. Preencounter
2. Encounter
3. Immersion-Emersion
4. Internalization/Commitment
What is the preencounter stage?
Preencouter Stage:
Racial identity has low salience.
Whites seen as the ideal/Af.Am. denigrated.
Prefer white therapist.
What is the encounter stage?
Encounter Stage:
Exposure to race-related event leads to racial/cultural awareness and interest in developing an Af. Am. identity.
Prefer minority therapist of the same race.
What is the immersion/emersion stage?
Struggle between old and emerging views of race.
1st--idealizes Af. Ams and denigrates whites.
At the end of the stage--person less emotionally immersed and begins to move toward internalization of a new identity.
What is the internalization/commitment stage?
Adoptation of an Af. Am. world view and in second half of the stage, begins to actively work to eradicate racism.
May exhibit healthy cultural paranoia.
What are the 6 stages of Helm's White Racial Identity Development Model?
1. Contact
2. Disintegration
3. Reintegration
4. Pseudo-Independence
5. Immersion-Emersion
6. Autonomy
Describe the Contact and Disintegration stages.
Contact: little awareness of racial identity.
Disintegration: Increased contact with Af.Am. increases awareness of being white. This leads to confusion and ambivalence. May overidentify with blacks, act paternalistic, or retreat into white society.
Describe the Reintegration and Pseudo-Independence Stages.
Reintegration: To resolve conflicts in stage 2, accept racist views of white superiority and black inferiority.
Pseudo-Independence: Precipitated by an event that causes person to question their views. Question racist views and recognize that whites have a responsibility for racism.
Describe the Immersion-Emersion and Autonomy stages.
Immersion-Emersion: Explores what it means to be white.
Autonomy: Internalize a positive/nonracist white identity.
Appreciation for racial/cultural differences.