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10 Cards in this Set

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Chloride
(common electrolytes)
-Main extracellular anion
-Important in: Maintenance of water distribution, Osmotic pressure, Normal anion/cation ratio
-Hyperchloremia: elevated blood chloride level
-Hypochloremia: decreased blood chloride level
-*Serum is the sample of choice
Bicarbonate
(common electrolytes)
-2nd most common anion of plasma
-Bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer system
-Aids in transport of carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
-*Kidney regulates
-Frequently estimated from blood carbon dioxide levels (95% of CO2 measured)
-*Arterial blood preferred for measurement
Name 4 causes of increased Creatine Kinase levels (without clinical signs of liver disease)
1. IM injections
2. Persistent recumbancy
3. Surgery
4. Vigorous excercise
5. Electric shock
6. Laceration
7. Bruising
8. Hypothermia
Define:
Enzymes:
Proteins produced inside cells
(Acts as catalst increasing the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs.)
-Body contains approx. 10,000 different enzymes
-Concentration of enzymes is higher within a cell than in the blood stream
Define:
International Unit
The amount of enzyme which under given assay conditions will catalyze the conversion of one micromole of substrate per minute
Define:
Katal
The basic unit of enzyme activity, the amount of activity that converts one mole of substrate per second.
Most terms end in -ase; example: Lipase
Definition
Enzyme that catalyzes biochemical reations that result in hydrolysis of lipids to fatty acids.
Reference Range
vs.
Normal Values
Range values derived when labs have repeatedly assayed samples from clinically normal animals within a given species.
Clinical Chemistry
-Determining levels of chemical constituents is an important aid in:
1. Formulation of an accurate diagnosis
2. Prescription of proper therapy
3. Documentation of the response to treatment
-Factors that may influence blood results:
-Because of these, vet techs must become familiar with:
1. Preanalytical errors (before)
2. Analytical errors (during)
3. Post analytical errors (after)
**********************************
1. Types of analytic instruments available
2. Testing procedures used
3. Rationale underlying analyses