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31 Cards in this Set

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ddx: alkaline urine
normal in LA: veggie based diet
UTI: urease producing bacteria
metabolic or respiratory alkalosis
postprandial alkaline tide
ddx: ketonuria
DKA
starvation
ketosis: cattle (HYPOglycemic)
pregnancy toxemia: sheep
causes of pre-renal azotemia
hypovolemia: GI hemorrhage, dehydration, shock, CV dz
fever
starvation
infection
ddx: proteinuria
preglomerular:
-functional: strenuous exercise, extreme heat/cold, stress, fever
-tubular overload: inc. production of low MW plasma proteins

glomerular: GN, amyloidosis

postglomerular: tubular (defective reabsorption: Fanconi's, etc.), inflammation, hemorrhage
lab findings w/ post-renal azotemia
oliguria to anuria
variable usg
normal PCV & albumin
hyperkalemia
FxEx(Na) < 1%
lab findings w/ renal tubular dz
U/A: casts, glucosuria, 1+ proteinuria, UP:UC < 3, dilute urine
acute: good BCS
azotemia
lab findings w/ pyelonephritis
U/A: active sediment (WBCs, bacteria), cellular casts, dilute urine
azotemia
ddx for Na:K < 23
Addison's
uroabdomen
renal failure
GI dz
artifact: breeds w/ inc. potassium in RBCs
differentiating primary hyperparathyroidism from HCM
hypercalcemia w/ hypophosphatemia

HCM: R/I by finding tumor

measure PTH & PTH-rp
-primary hyperparathyroidism: inc. PTH, normal to dec. PTH-rp
-HCM: normal to dec. PTH, inc. PTH-rp
lab findings w/ pre-renal azotemia
polycythemia, hyperproteinemia, BUN/Cr > 20
U/A: usg > 1.030, FxEx(Na) < 1%
ddx for hypoglycemia
insulinoma
insulin OD
sepsis
neonate
starvation
Addison's
ketosis
pregnancy
small dog
endurance horse
artifact
ddx for PU/PD
CRF
psychogenic PD
DM
DI
Cushing's
liver dz
hypercalcemia
drugs
ddx for hypercalcemia w/ hypophosphatemia
HCM
primary hyperparathyroidism
renal failure (horse)
ddx for hypercalcemia w/ normo- to hyperphosphatemia
HCM
primary hyperparathyroidism
renal failure
idiopathic (cat)
vitamin D toxicosis
Addison's
young animals
Blastomycosis
ddx for hypocalcemia w/ hyperphosphatemia
renal dz
primary hypoparathyroidism
ddx for hypocalcemia w/ normo- to hypophosphatemia
hypoalbuminemia
renal dz
primary hypoparathyroidism
milk fever
eclampsia
pancreatitis
blister beetle toxicity
nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
endurance racing
ddx for hyperglycemia
DM
inc. catecholamines (stress)
inc. glucocorticoids (Cushing's or exogenous)
postprandial
ethylene glycol toxicity
drugs
pancreatitis
hormones
ddx for hyperkalemia
ARF
pre- or post- renal azotemia
uroabdomen
Addison's
acidosis
ddx for hypokalemia
CRF
vomiting/diarrhea
alkalosis
ddx for glucosuria
w/ persistent hyperglycemia: DM, Cushing's

w/ transient hyperglycemia: stress, glucocorticoids, pancreatitis, ethylene glycol toxicity
insulinoma

a. caused by...
b. chem findings
c. screen
d. confirm
a. beta cell tumor (malignant in dogs)
b. marked hypoglycemia, marked hypokalemia, marked hypophosphatemia
c. marked hypoglycemia
d. abdominal sx & excisional bx or inc. endogenous insulin (measured when patient is hypoglycemic)
hyperthyroidism

a. caused by...
b. CBC findings
c. chem findings
d. screen
e. confirm
a. thyroid adenoma
b. stress leukogram, polycythemia
c. inc. liver enzymes, hyperglycemia (stress)
d. inc. T4, fT4
e. T3 suppression test: will not suppress to 50% of basal T4 level
hypothyroidism

a. caused by...
b. CBC findings
c. chem findings
d. screen
e. confirm
a. lymphocytic thyroiditis (dogs), goiter (LA), pituitary lesion (uncommon)
b. mild nonreg. anemia
c. marked inc. cholesterol, lipemia, inc. liver enzymes
d. dec. T4, fT4 (good to R/O)
e. endog. TSH
-inc. w/ primary, dec. w/ secondary, normal in euthyroid sick animals
could also measure T3 & T4 Ab's
Cushing's

a. caused by...
b. CBC findings
c. chem findings
d. U/A findings
e. screen
f. confirm
a. pituitary adenoma (80-85%), adrenal tumor (10-15%), iatrogenic, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia
b. stress leukogram, polycythemia
c. marked inc. ALP, hyperglycemia, dec. phosphorous
d. dec. usg, glucosuria, active sediment
e. inc. UCCR (good to R/O), ACTH stim: 5x inc. over basal cortisol, LDDS: no suppression (good to R/O)
f. endog. ACTH: dec. w/ primary, inc. w/ secondary
HDDS: primary: no suppression, secondary: suppression
Addison's

a. caused by...
b. CBC findings
c. chem findings
d. U/A findings
e. screen
a. lymphocytic adrenalitis (90-95%), pituitary tumor, iatrogenic
b. NO stress leukogram, mild nonregen. anemia
c. azotemia, Na/K < 23, hyperphosphatemia, +/- hypercalcemia, hypochloridemia, hyperalbuminemia
d. s.g. may be inc. (dehydration) or dec. (medullary washout)
e. ACTH stim: little to no inc. in basal cortisol
endogenous ACTH: inc. w/ primary, dec. w/ secondary
basal cortisol: low to low normal
electrolyte abnormalities: yes w/ primary, no w/ secondary
glomerular dz

a. CBC
b. chem
c. U/A
a. anemia
b. hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, azotemia
c. proteinuria (3-4+), UP/UC > 5 (>10: GN, > 20: amyloidosis)

ascites, wt. loss
nephrotic syndrome
uroabdomen

a. chem
b. dx
a. azotemia, dec. Na, Cl, inc. K
b. peritoneal creatinine > serum creatinine
diabetes mellitus

a. caused by...
b. CBC findings
c. chem findings
d. U/A findings
e. confirm
a. type I: absolute insulin deficiency
type II: relative insulin deficiency (insulin resistance)
type III: insulin antagonism
b. stress +/- inflammatory leukogram
c. marked hyperglycemia, inc. liver enzymes, inc. cholesterol & TG
d. glucosuria, ketonuria, active sediment
e. hyperglycemia + glucosuria + ketonuria = DKA
endogenous insulin: markedly dec. w/ type I, increased w/ type II
ddx: decreased BUN
dec. production: hepatic dz, PSS
inc. excretion: diuresis
ethylene glycol toxicity

a. CBC
b. chem
c. U/A
a. +/- stress leukogram, polycythemia
b. azotemia (late), dec. Ca, inc. P, large osmol gap (1 h), large anion gap (3 h)
c. casts, calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, isosthenuria

ARF, nephrosis
ddx: acidic urine
normal in SA (meat based diet)
acidifying diets or drugs
metabolic or respiratory acidosis
paradoxical aciduria (severe vomiting or abomasal obstruction)