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25 Cards in this Set

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Science
Term used in its broadest meaning to denote systematized knowledge-building in any field.
Applied usually to the organization of objectively verifiable sensory experiences.
Scienctific Fields
The research (knowledge-building) process:
Inductive reasoning- goal, explore, discover, and describe new knowledge
Deductive reasoning – goal – test existing knowledge and theories
Inductive reasoning
goal, explore, discover, and describe new knowledge
Deductive reasoning
goal – test existing knowledge and theories
Concept of scientific revolutions: (kuhn, 1962)
*normal science
*crises
*revolution
*paradigm shift
Physical science v. social science
Physics biology and chemistry v sociology criminology psychology
What came first science or technology?
Science and technology are Inextricability linked
*Neither is possible w/ out the other
*Society depends on both, but science generally does not provide basis for technology innovation
*Technology is generally feared more than science as being out of control.
WHAT is technology
Process by which humans fashion tools and machines to increase their control and understanding of the material environment
“Simple-to-complex tools and techniques that allow people to do things.”
Technology production eras
*craft production- hand made and unique
*Mass manufacturing
*Synthetic production
Craft era
Everything hand made—workers possessed tacit knowledge and skills
production
high quality with low volume
Technology trends
INCREASING: Systems integration
Synthetic knowledge
Complexity
Manufacturers
Product lines
Functionality
Interoperability
Affordability
Miniaturization
Adoption for criminal justice, security and personal purposes.
What does “administration of justice” mean?
*managing agencies
*crime prevention
*order maintenance
*crime control
*Law enforcement
*corrections
*social justice
*reduction of fear **
Six categories of positive and negative impacts and implications
1. Ethical- is it the right thing to do?
2. Social- how will our lives change?
3. Legal- is it consistent with constitutional rights and legal responsibilities?
4. technical- is it compatible with existing tech?
5. Managerial- How will it affect operations, culture and supervision of personnel?
6. policy- What more can the federal government do to research, develop or promote responsible use of the technology?
Management-related process involved in criminal justice and security technology administration.
Invention- discovery of a new technology
Innovation- improving an existing technology
Adoption- planning for and decision to being using
Procurement- involves budgeting for and purchasing
Implementation- phasing into operations
Training- developing personnel knowledge, skills, abilities
Use- state of regular reliance and supervision
Maintenance- preventing damage and repairing equipment
Evaluation- determining efficaciousness
Diffusion- having to do with widespread technology adoption
Planning for budgeting and procurement
*budgeting and fiscal management: --Costs: capital, direct, indirect
Procurement: RFP- a request for proposal is a method used to solicit business plans from corporations. The RFP process allows for you the equitable and simultaneous comparison and analysis of competing business product and service offerings.
(RFQ = request for quotation)
budgeting and fiscal management:
--Costs: capital, direct, indirect
Procurement:
RFP- a request for proposal is a method used to solicit business plans from corporations. The RFP process allows for you the equitable and simultaneous comparison and analysis of competing business product and service offerings.
(RFQ = request for quotation)
insourcing
*reduced cost
*greater control
*more ownership
*inability to recoup costs
*must assume liability
outsourcing
*requires RFP contract awarding process
*requires contractor oversight
*more expensive
*more expertise
*product/service warranty.
Planning for technology adoption
You must know your agency, community, and/or service target:
*assess and identify capabilities, needs and deficiencies
*know your mission
*must know your technology status
*scan for threats/opportunities
*determine manpower and material available for technology, can you do it yourself, or do you need help?
10 core purposes for which criminals use technology:
1. surveillance
2. planning
3. communication
4. transportation
5. coercion
6. protection
7. concealment
8. value storage
9. inflict harm
10. expand operations
Ongoing management and maintenance of technologies
*regular inspection and testing to ensure proper functioning
* procedures for care and servicing of equipment
primary and secondary technical categories
1.avionics 2. chemical 3. computing 4. electro-mechanical 5. electronics 6. imaging 7. mechanical 8. optial 9. robotics 10. sensing 11. telecommunications
primary and secondary functional categories
1.bomb/explosives/ordinance management
2. communications
3. compliance/immobilization
4. contraband detection
5. crime/collision scene management
6. crime/ intelligence analysis
7. critical incident management
8. cyber protection
9. facilities protection
10. forensics/criminalistics
11. measurement
12. planning and problem solving
13. prisoner management
14. protective equiptment
15. records mngt and integrated info systems.
16. spatial accessing
17.surveillance & monitering
18. training
19. transportation