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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bedouin
group of nomads that wandered Arabia
Hijaz
area of western arabia by red sea
mecca
city in hijaz, center of muslim religion
Ka'ba
religious building in Mecca built by Abraham
Muhammed
received revelations from Allah
Hijra
journey of Muhammed to Medina
Qur'an
Holy book of Islam, literal words of God
Muslims
followers of Islam
jihad
fight for religion
caliph
successor of Muhammed
Abu Baker
first caliph
Ali
fourth caliph, descendant of Muhammed, assassinated
Umayyads
family of caliphs after Ali
Shi'ites
followers of Ali, believe in bloodline caliphs
Sumi
followers of Muhammed
Abassids
family that overthrows Umayyads
Abu al-Abbas
leader of Abassids
al-Razi
wrote book "On smallpox and measles"
al-Khwarizmi
wrote "arithmetic" and "algebra"
Baghdad
main city built by Abassids
Harun al-Rashid
main character in "Arabian Nights"
Rubaiyat
poem by Omar Khyyan
Sufis
muslims, "mystics"
savanna
open grassland
Bantu
tribe of Africa
animism
belief that everything has a source of life
Solomnids
Aksum citizens believe they are the decendants of Solomn
Ethiopia
(solomnids) Cristians grouped by persecution
Coptic Christians
Egyptian Christians
gult
land grant
Zara Yakob
Ethiopian leader, fought back Islam
Western Sudan
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Ghana
begins trade with western europe, utilizes the camel
europe/ghana trade
gold, salts, slaves
Mansa Musa
Mali ruler, gave gifts on his way with a large group to Mecca
Timbuktu
becomes capitol of Mali
Askia Muhammed
Songhai ruler
Swahili
language comprised of a series of city states
hybrid civilization
mixture of cultures
Great Zimbabwe
"houses of stone"
Zheung He
Chinese emporer, traveled to Zimbabwe... may have discovered america
Franks
rise after the fall of the Roman Empire
Clovis
leader of Franks, converted to Christianity
Merovingians
family of rulers by "divine right", rulers couldn't cut their hair or bathe
Carolingians
mayors of the palace (kings first servant)
Charles "Martel" (the hammer)
great warrior against muslims, mayor of palace
feudilism
land grant for military service
fief
land given in feudilism, sized by army
Pepin "the short"
became king by giving the Pope land for the Pope's statement
Papal States
area in Italy run by the Pope, involves Christianity in politics
Charlemagne
ruler after Pepin, attempts to creat empire
duke (duchy)
responsible for defending counties
Carolingian Renaissance
"candle flame of dark ages"
Louis "the Pious"
religious but bad king
Vikings
farmed better due to warming and became great ship builders, barbarians, took Normandy
Holy Roman Empire
empire of Charlemagne
Leif Ericson
kills neighbors with an ax, runs and discovers Newfoundland/Vinland
investiture/homage
promise/oath to be the lord's man
manor
small village, self-sustainable
peasant
lives on a manor, low class majority
free tenant
peasant employee
serf
peasant, not slaves but not free and work in the same place
Hugh Capet
first king of France
Louis "the Fat"
king is head of courts, king "lord of first loyalty"
Philip Agustus
developes national army not depending of feudilism, creates national spirit, king of France
Celts
inhabitants of Britain
Angles
barbarians, England is named after
Saxon
barbarians (combined to make anglo-saxons)
Alfred "the great"
king of britain, anglo-saxon, holds off vikings, law giver, supports historic books "Anglo-saxon Chronicles"
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
history "diary" of Middle ages
Edward "the Confessor"
last kind in bloodline of Alfred, confesses due to fear of dieing with sins, built Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
church/cathedral built by Edward
William "the Conquerer"
leader of Normandy
Herald
anglo-saxon Earl (count), king after Edward
Hastings
battle in Britain, Britain is conquered by Normandy
Henry II
father of first english common law, created bureaucracy
Thomas a Becket
archbishop of Canterberry, causes conflict between church and state
John
son of Henry II, worst king, lost wars in France, lost to Innocence III (Pope)
Magna Carta
list of wrongdoings, accepts king can do wrong and be punished, people have rights
Henry III
John's son, also not a good king
Simon de Monfort
locals and elective representatives (parliament) to advise king
parliament
group of elected officials, legislative body
House of Lords
noble legislative body
House of Commons
commoner legislative body
Edward I
good kind, kept parliament
Otto "the Great"
ruler of Germany area, conflicts with the church
abbot
head of monestary
monasteries
places to learn literacy
Innocence III
Pope with greatest power, claims to be head over everyone
heresy (heretics)
false doctrine, anyone who disagrees with the church
friar
mix of monk/priest, don't withdraw from world
St. Francis of Assisi
gave everything to preach (even to animals)
St. Dominic
believed church has a duty to educate
Crusades
Muslims vs. Christians
Manzikert
Muslims defeat Christians
Urban II
recruits Christians to fight, began first Crusade
Templars
Christian warriors, job, defend holy land
Saladin
most important muslim leader, retakes jerusalem
Richard the Lionheart
king of England, fought in Crusades
Fredrick Barbarossa
king of Holy Roman Empire, drowns on the way to the third crusade
Philip Augustus
king of France, turns back from the crusades
guilds
take care of familys of members, prevent job competition, inspect quality
Spain
Muslim empire
Reconquista
"reconquest" to regain Spain from muslims
El Cid
led against muslims for spain
Castile
christian portion of spain
aragon
combines with castile
granada
muslim area of spain defeated by aragon
Ferdinand and Isabella
combine aragon and castile with marriage, funds columbus
Hundred Years War
began by Edward III (england against france)
Crecy
battle won by enlish against france using peasants and longbows
Joan of Arc
teenage peasant woman from france, leads france to victors
Boniface VIII
issues unam sanctum
Unam Sanctum
declares that nobody can disagree with the Pope
Philip "the Fair"
king of France, conflicts with Boniface
Babylonian Captivity
Popes are taken to France (arigon)
Great Schism
Split; Pope in France and another in Rome
John Wyclif
believed church was materialistic, believe church was not needed for salvation
Lollards
followers of Wyclif, began underground protestant movement
John Hus
criticized the church, convicted of Hericy and burned
universities
collection/assembly of scholars, run by the church
scholasticism
accepts teachings of church, philosophy school
St. Thomas Aquinas
wrote "Summa Theologica"
Chandra Gupta
founded the Gupta empire
Sanskrit
language used in literature of India
Kalidasa
poet and play writer
Shakuntala
written by Kalidasa, Romeo and Juliet play
Aryabhatta
mathematician, astronomer (understood the world shape, tilt, and revolution), poet
Harsha
creates another empire after the fall of Gupta
Mahmud of Ghazni
invades India to spread Islam
Delhi Sultate
empire area created by invasion
Empress Wu
female emporer of China
Diamond Sutra
first printed book
Understanding of History
book created to defend the beliefs that history is needed to understand
Mulan
mentioned in poem, real
Li Po
lyric poet
"soothing the barbarian"
invites invaders in as a strategy during the Song Dynasty
Ju Xi
philosopher, creates Neo-Confucianism
Kurya
family that created dynasty and began korea
Jimmu
original traditional japanese emporer
Yammato Clan
family of Jimmu, line of emporers
Shinto
"way of the gods"
Taika Reforms
cultural exchange due to interaction with china
Nara
ancient symbol of japan
Heian Period
time of peace with change of capitol
Heian-kyo (kyoto)
second capitol of japan
Fujiwara
family that runs Japan through emporer
daimyo
the nobility class of Japan
bushido
code of conduct for samurai (loyalty and honor)
seppuku
ritual suicide
Yoritomo
establishes new govt. (Kamakura Shogonate)
Kamakura Shogonate
seperates emporer's right to rule from being divine
Monomato
clan of Yoritomo
shogun
general
steppe
open grassland area
khan
mongol leader
Temujin
"man of iron" aka. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
first to unite/control mongols
Kublai Khan
Mongol that ruled china
Marco Polo
Italian traveler, wrote book
Pax Mongolica
peace of Mongols
Tenochitlan
Mayan capitol
Iroquis
mound builders