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28 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 steps in establishing a connection-oriented session?
synchronize; negotiate connection; synchronize; and acknowledge
What are the 3 phases in a connection-oriented session?
call setup (connection establishment); data transfer; and call termination
What are the 4 advantages of LAN segmentation?
security; broadcast control; performance; and scalability
Why is Layer 2 switching considered hardware-based bridging?
it uses application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC's)
What are the 2 advantages of application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC's)?
high speed and low latency
What OSI layer are filter tables part of?
layer 2 (Data Link)
How are filter tables created?
by reading the source hardware address of each frame that passes through
What does transparent bridging refer to?
layer 2 devices only pass frames to segments that contain destination addresses
What does a layer 2 device do with a frame with an unfamiliar hardware address?
forwards it to all connected segments
Why is it possible for all segments on a switch to transmit at once, but not on a hub?
each segment on a switch is its own collision domain
How must all Class A IP addresses start?
with a binary 0
How must all Class B IP addresses start?
with a binary 10
How must all Class C IP addresses start?
with a binary 110
What is the formula for the number of valid subnets created by a given subnet mask?
2ⁿ - 2, where n = number of masked bits
What is the formula for the number of valid hosts per subnet created by a given subnet mask?
2ⁿ - 2, where n = number of unmasked bits
What is the formula for the address octet of the first valid subnet created by a given subnet mask?
256 - last octet of subnet mask
What are the four layers of the DoD model?
Process/Application, Host-to-Host, Internet, and Network Access
What OSI layer(s) does the Process/Application layer map to?
Application, Presentation, and Session
What OSI layer(s) does the Host-to-Host layer map to?
the Transport layer
What OSI layer(s) does the Internet layer map to?
the Network layer
What OSI layer(s) does the Network Access layer map to?
the Data Link and Physical layers
What DoD layer does bootP work at?
the Internet layer
What DoD layer does ICMP work at?
the Internet layer
What does Cisco use ICMP for?
sending updates to routers about route or packet problems
What does a router do if it can't forward a datagram?
it sends a "destination unreachable" message to the sender via ICMP
What does a router do if its memory buffer is full?
sends a "buffer full" message to senders via ICMP
What happens if a datagram reaches its hop limit?
the last router to receive it deletes it and sends an obituary message via ICMP
What protocol does ping use?
ICMP