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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are galen's concepts
dose/response curves
remedy must be of good quality
illness is simple
drug is more powerful than illness
effect of drug should be same for everyone every time
drug effect is specific to humans
describe yin
passive
female
flows down
What are the tastes of yin
sour
bitter
salty
describe yang
active
male
flows up
what are tastes of yang
acrid
sweet
bitter organ system
heart
small intestine
sweet organ system
spleen
stomach
acrid organ system
lungs
large intestine
salty organ system
kidney
bladder
sour organ system
liver
gallbladder
define dosha
dysfunction
what type of medicine uses dosha
ayurvedic (indian) medicine
describe metal
hard
strong but mouldable
cold but responsive to heat
lustrous
protective
what three living systems relate to botanical medicines
perception (volatile oils)
reaction (volatile oils)
reproduction (saponins)
how much is metabolized in the first pass phenomenon
60%
define pharmacodynamics
effect of drug on the body
define pharmacokinetics
effect of body on the drug
what is an agonist
drug that stimulates or inhibits an effector after complexing with a receptor
(has intrinsic activity)
what is an antagonist
drug that complexes with a receptor but the complex lacks intrinsic activity
(has no activity on its own)
what is an agonist that inhibits
has intrinsic activity but antagonist has no activity of its own
what do you wish to achieve with potency and efficacy
maximum level of desired effect yielding the best response (efficacy) with the smallest dose (high potency)
define potency
biological effect per unit weight
define efficacy
maximum level of desire effect
related to affinity and intrinsic activity
which is more important potency or efficacy
efficacy
what is summation
X
1 + 1 = 2
what is synergism
Y
1 + 1 = 3
what is potentiation
Z
1 + 0 = 3
what is a pharmacological antagonism
negative effects
2 drugs have opposite effects
what is a physiological antagonism
negative effects
2 drugs compete for the same receptors
describe depot injection
injected into large muscle
absorbed into the bloodstream slowly
what is protein binding and why is it good
binds up drug for storage
minimizes fluctuation
not filtered excreted less
what is RSI
relative safety index
TI of new drug/TI of standard drug
high the RSI means the new drug is safer
How is TI determined
lethal dose/effective dose
toxic dose/effective dose
how does pKa affect dosage
only the uncharged portion of the drug can be absorbed
what is the pKa
ionization constant
pH at which 1/2 of the ions are charged and 1/2 are not charged
what is protein binding
bound drug acts as storehouse
bound drug is not filtered by glomerulus
not excreted as rapidly
what is conjugation
drug is bound to a more water soluble substance
more easily excreted
protects
what are the inputs
GI absorbtion
parenteral administration
from storage depots
reabsorption from renal tubules
redistribution
what are the outputs
diffusion into interstitial fluid
into storage depots
biotransformation
excretion
what is steady state
when the DRUGS output is equal to the input
what is homeostasis
state of equilibrium of the BODY with respect to functions
how do we achive a steady state (half-life)
give increased "loading/priming dose" to avoid waiting 4 1/2 half lives
then give smaller (maintenance) dose which gets us to steady state
use of chamomile
inflammation of GI
digestive
skin
mucous membranes
use of Hawthorne
heart tonic
cardiovascular
use of Milk thistle
liver
use of Saw Palmetto
reduces prostate size
reducing amount of Dihydrotestosterone and estrogen in the prostate
use of Cranberry
urinary
bladder
use of aloe vera
laxative
digestive
treat burns
use of St. Johns Wart
depression (inhibition of monoamine oxidase)
nervous system
how is a botanical different from a drug
several ingredients
long onset of action
less effect
fewer side effects
effects last after discontinue
effects STRUCTURE and FUNCTION
how is a drug different from a botanical
one ingredient
more effective
more side effects
does NOT effect structure and funcion
stops after discontinuation
define standardization
properly identifying raw materials
analyzing the plant for toxic substances
identifying key compounds
determining ideal level of key compounds
extract key compounds
determine unique chemical profile of plant
maintain that chemical profile of the plant
what is a tannin
simplest phenol
decomposes water slowly
good for leather
ASTRINGENT
decrease metal absorption
what is an anthraquinone
glycoside
LAXATIVE
psoriasis
may cause cramping (hypokalemia)
what is a flavinoid
antioxidants
strengthen the plant
give it the color and pigment
what is a coumarin
anticoagulant
what are essential oils
really not an oil
example = terpenoids
what do glycosides contain
sugar
what is isothocyanate
goitergenic
cause hypothyroid by inhibiting T4
treatment for HYPERTHYROID
what is a benzoic acid
found in cranberries
found in many resins
what are tannins (OPC)
decrease heart dz
hawthorne
PINE BARK
what are resins
protective
relief from ulcers
what does capsacin do
activates then inhibits C fibers
produces substance P
use of aloe vera
laxative
treat burns
use of guggul
helps with lowering cholesterol
use of witch hazel
astringent
helps with varicose veins
use of boswelia
osteoarthritis
use of pine bark
tannin (OPC)
heart dz
PYCNOGYNOL
use of grape seed extract
tannin (OPC)
heart dz
use of juniper
diuretic
what are cardiac glycosides used for
how do they work
congestive hrt failure
inhibit Na/K pump
increase force of heart
decrease hrt rate
what are cascara and senna used for
how do they work
anthraquinone
laxative
stimulate Cl secretion
what are the strategies for herbal prescription
cleaning - elimination
optimize body chemistry - nutrition
optimize body energy - vitality
what are topical preparations used for
wounds
sprains/bruises
pruritis
inflammed jts
cutaneous eruptions
systemic inflammatory dz.
how are topical preparations classified as
demulcents
astringents
anti-inflammatory
antiseptics
what are used for allergies
echinacea
chamomile
stinging nettles
bromelain
what are the major side effects of botanicals
GI
allergies
what is PG 1 prostaglandin
anti-spasmotic
what is PG 2 prostaglandin
inflammation
what is PG 3 prostaglandin
anti-inflammatory
what is the hrt prescription
CoQ10
L-carnitine
HAWTHORNE
garlic
B6 B12
folate
taraxacum (dandelion) lower BP
passionflower (sedative)
kava
valerian
digitalis (purpurea foxglove)
what is the gut prescription
L-glutamine
HCl
marshmallow
capsacin (cayenne)
ginger
tumeric
chomomile
aloe
cascara
barberry
what is dandelion used for
leaves - natural diuretic
roots - mild laxative and promote bile flow and liver fx
treats hypertension
direct role in vasodilation
what is the diabetic prescription
vit B,A,C
Chromium
Vanadium (vaudate)
bilberry
cinnamon
Ginseng
what is synergy
botanicals have many different ingredients therefore each one has many different mx of action
how did galen treat fevers and heat
heating remedies start at or equal to heat of our bodies
expelled by perspiration to heal
what are Galen's concepts of pharmacodynamics in the botanical approach
illness must be appropriate to action of drug
illness must be simple not complex
drug must be more powerful than illness
effect of drug is the same for everyone at every time
effect of the drug is specific for humans
distinguish the effect of the drug from food
Yin/Yang , Dosha (disharmonies)
emotional metaphors
what is the concept of Yin/Yang
traditional chinese medicine
everything moves in continuum
herbs have a relationship with phase, fx, taste
describe ayurvedic medicine
Indian
linked to taste (RASAS)
everyone craves the taste most lacking in them
Dosha means what
dysfunctional
what does Vata/air mean
respiratory
what does ama mean
toxicity
what does Kapha mean
mucous conditions
what does vata/sama
GI
what does fire relate to
heart
small intestine
bitter
what does earth relate to
spleen
stomach
sweet
what does metal relate to
lungs
large intestine
pungent
what does water relate to
kidney
bladder
salty
what does wood relate to
liver
gallbladder
sour
define pharmacology
study of the interaction of biologically active agents with living systems
define pharmacodynamics
effect of substance on the body
define pharmacokinetics
effect of body on the drug
define phytochemistry
study of chemical constituents of plants
many constituents of plants are 2ndary metabolites
what do 2ndary metabolites help the plant do
survive
what is a depot injection
bolus injection just slightly under the skin or between muscles
injection of substance that tends to keep it at the site of the injections so that absorption occurs over a prolonged period
what is an enteric coating
allows for absorption of the drug from the GI tract
protects the drug from the body
what is an enteral administration
refers to drugs taken orally and absorbed by the GI tract
what are the advantages of enteral
convenience
economics
safety
what are the disadvantages of enteral
unpredictable rate of absorption
destruction by digestive/hepatic enzymes
variable pt. characteristics
stressed pt does not absorb nutrients well
parenteral disadvantages
hard to get into area of interest
the fraction of the drug in the uncharged form is determined by what
the ionization constant (pKa) of the compound and by the pH of the medium
absorption of the drug is dependent on what
concentration of the uncharged form and its lipid solubility
(only the uncharged portion of the drug is absorbed)
what do antacids do to the drug absorption
make the environment less acidic
decrease the amount of absorption of drugs
what does HCl do to the drug absorption
increases the drugs ability to be absorbed
what is pKa
pH of the medium at which half of the drug is charged and the other half in non-charged
what does conjugation do to the drug
protects the drug
what is biotransformation
may have lost all biological activity
may be either less, equally, or mor potent
chamomile organ system
GI
Hawthorne organ system
Heart
Saw Palmetto organ system
prostate
Milk thistle organ system
liver
cranberry organ system
UTI
aloe vera organ system
Skin
St. Johns organ system
CNS
define agonist
drug that stimulates/inhibits an effector after complexing with a receptor
produces intrinsic activity
define antagonist
drug that complexes with a receptor but the complex LACKS INTRINSIC ACTIVITY
define potency
biological effect per unit weight
related to affinity between drug and receptors
power of a medicinal agent to produce the desire effect
only related to dose
define efficacy
related to affinity and intrinsic activity
ability to elicit the maximum level of desired effect of obtainable drugs
strength
effectiveness
define summation
X
combined effects of 2 or more drugs is equal to the sum of their individual action
mechanism of action and sites of action are the same
(same mx, same site of ax)
1 + 1 = 2
define synergism
Y
working together of 2 or more drugs in which the effects are the same but the mechanism of action and /or sites of action are different
(diff. sites of ax and diff mx of ax)
1 + 1 = 3
define potentiation
one drug increases the potency and/or duration of action of another drug but has not effect on the target itself
(added drug affects the pharmacokinetics of the first)
1 + 0 = 3
what is a chemical negative interaction
one drug combines with other
what is a biochemical negative interaction
one drug increases the metabolism of the other
what is a negative physiological interaction
two drugs have opposite effects on given system
what is a pharmacological negative interaction
two drugs compete for the same receptor
what is the ideal of standardization
establish constistent potency
control the full spectrum of bioactive chemical constituents naturally occurring in medicinal plants from batch to batch
what is a functional food
food that is capable of providing a health benefit to the body
what do 2ndary metabolites do for the plant
plants immobile
changing physical environments
attach by animals and environment
mechansim of defense developed
what do 2ndary metabolites have for action in the plants
insect attack
protect against decomposition by microbial agents
defense against other plants
defense against infx
make color and strength
protects and helps reproduction
what is willow bark
best known phenolic acid
salicylic acid
does not have anti-platelet action
not suitable for hrt patients
what is a counterirritant
irritants that stimulate nerve endings on the skin to cause fellings of hot, cold, itching
describe capsacin
release of prostaglandins and substance P
inhibit C fibers
describe ginger actions
closes gate to sensory going up by inhibiting C fibers
descibe saponins action
decrease absorption of cholesterol
antiviral
antifungal
increase permeability of SI