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61 Cards in this Set

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Equal Field System
government owns the land and apportions to farmers; helps with census and tax collection (N. Wei Dyn- 5th century)
Emperor Sui Wendi
aka Yang Jian; unified empire using Buddhism; instituted Equal Field System and civil service exams (late 500s)
Tang Taizong
aka Li Shimin; second Tang emperor, model of prosperity and peace, established Tang protectorate in Central Asia (mid-600s)
Silk Road
overland trade from Europe to China
Tang Legal Code of 653
basis of codified Chinese law; extensive penal code, punishments based on relationships, reinforces social hierarchy
civil service examination system
instated in 595, merit based, classical liberal education
Grand Canal
connecting the Yellow River with the Yangtze (early 600s, Sui Dyn)
Wu Zetian
only female emperor (late 600s)
Chang'an
the Tang capital, organized and planned, symbol of powerful central control
cosmopolitan culture
during Tang Dynasty, interest in and welcome of foreign things
Tang Xuanzong
brought down by Prized Consort, allows decentralization, multi-cultural flowering (early 700s)
regional military governors
system established by Tang Xuanzong that allowed power to be taken from central command
Battle of Talas River
Chinese loss causes C. Asia to be under the influence of Arabs (751)
Two Tax Policy
during Tang, delegates tax collection to regional governors, each region is responsible for quote of taxes due to the imperial court
decline of aristocracy
As central power collapsed following the Tang dynasty, the urban elite went with it
nativism
reactionaries see Chinese problems as the result of foreign influence, barbarians in An Lushan Rebellion
imperial proscription of Buddhism
843-5; seen as a foreign idea, suppressed by state; added benefit of increasing taxpayers, bronze in circulation
Ancient prose style
emblematic of the desire to return to antiquity; classical ideas of clarity and concision, moral message, after An Lushan reb.
Han Yu
"Genealogy of the Way," claimed to the the true heir to Confucian thinking, which is the same as Chinese thinking
An Lushan Rebellion
during Tang Xuanzong's reign, led by regional military men
southward migration
spurred by wars in North (long collapse of Tang), better agricultural technology (Green Rev, Rice Bowl), strong infrastructure (Grand Canal, better water transport, S. economy strong enough to employ many)
commercialization
because of Green Revolution, rice could be sold in market economy, government only controlled a few goods; increasing rural access to markets; leads to first growth of commercially-based cities
rise of scholar-elite
Under Song, military under civilian control; need for bigger bureaucracy led to opening of exam system to more people
Li Keyong
Turkish general, was hired to combat Huang Chao rebellion, but his son founded a conquest dynasty- Later Tang (overthrowing Li Keyong's Later Liang)
Zhu Wen
warlord and leader in Huang Chao's army; his surrender was key to repressing the rebellion, founded Later Liang
Huang Chao rebellion
878-80- led to dissolution of Tang; agrarian protest and anarchist movement after severe drought, town to town pillaging, ruined Chang-an
Song Taizu
aka Zhao Kuangyin; reunited China except the 16 prefectures with strict restraint, weakened military to stop future usurpers (like him), but allowed regional military command (future warlords)
Sixteen Prefectures
territory in north, ruled by Khitans, endangering northern border
"dissolving the militarists' power with a cup of wine"
?
Song Taizong
appeaser, reactive and defensive; huge, crippling, ineffective military; finally, leads disastrous campaigns in north
Treaty of Shanyuan
1005- saved China; annual payments and "equality" of leaders, huge psychological blow
palace examination
highest civil service exam, administered by emperor
Ouyang Xiu
unifying figure, obsessed with antiquity, belief in fixing things through institutions, inspired by Han Yu, decadent personal life, rise through exam system
Qingli Reforms
1044- overhaul of exam system, from poetic to practical, strengthen local gov (better salaries, investment in agro, equalizing labor req), create militias and local defense
Ancient Prose Movement
1057 Civil Service Exams, reflected more practical nature of exams, Ouyang Xiu
court factionalism
forbidded, but necessary in reality- often cause of instability; driven by increased competition for positions, intensified by new emphasis on policy
Wang Anshi
reformist, believed new institutions could fix problems, intrusive role of gov
New Policies
Green Sprouts (low-int loans to farmers), Mutual Security (domestic defense and surveillance), Three Halls (empire-wide government schools)
Sima Guang
anti-reformist, opposed to state intervention, believed need was to restore values to the bureaucracy
Song Huizong
post-reform, intellectual not ruler- gives power to Cai Jing, who loses North to barbarians, new policies totally discredited
Yelu Abaoji
founder of Liao, leads expansion into China, establishes dual administration (inherent conflict- elected vs. hereditary)
dual administration
way to rule nomadic tribes and sedentary Chinese
Sixteen Prefectures
ceded 936 to Khitans with no bloodshed
Wanyan Aguda
consolidated control of the Jurchen Jin
Decimal system
Jurchen military-political organization, based on multiples of 10
"using barbarians to control barbarians"
foolproof plan by Chinese
Calamity of Jingkang
1127- Jurchen soldiers invade Song capital and kidnap emperor, ending N. Song
Song Huizong
artist who neglected military, abdicated for son then both kidnapped
Treaty of Shaoxing
1142- S. Song pays annual indemnities, recognizes Jin as father to son
Great Migration
enabled Jin to govern vastly more populous Chinese, resettled in land-grant colonies, est. permanent mil presense and acted as administrators
Prince Hailing
Jurchen who ruled as Chinese-style emperor, centralized civil and mil decision-making, abolished dual admin
Genghis Khan
history's ultimate badass
Hartwell-Hymes hypothesis
N. Song- focus on national level
S. Song- focus on local level, officeholding not central to strategies and self-conception
Zhu Xi
rationalist, intellectual leader, developed True Way Learning, new policies- Community Granary, Community Compact, Local Academies (like Wang Anshi but all local, voluntary), institutions could improve society but on local level, concerned with self-cultivation and morality, allowed local elites to gain prominence, saw self as dissident, against centralization
Chen Liang
utilitarians, emphasis on practical, gov should be helping people, safety and prosperity; warmonger, deal with reality as is, practical solutions for problems, Song overcentralized
Liu Jiuyuan
idealist, School of the Mind, knowing things intuitively, mind is ultimate reality, subjective morality; more important in Ming
True Way Learning
Zhu Xi, advocated self-cultivation as means of revitalizing society, gave S. Song elites reason to lead locally
li
pattern, principle
qi
psychophysical force
daotong
Orthodox Transmission of the Way
Four Books
Analects of Confucius, Mencius, The Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean