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59 Cards in this Set

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constructivist approach
Piaget's theory of cognitive development;
schemes
specific psychological structures-organized ways of making sense of experiences
mental representations
internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate (images [mental pictures of objects, people, places, etc], and concepts)
adaptation
involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment (involves assimilation and accommodation)
assimilation
we use our current schemes to interpret the external world
accomodation
we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely
sensorimotor stage
spans the first 2 years of life; infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads
goal-directed behavior
coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems
object permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
A-not-B search error
if they reach several times for an object at a first hiding place (A) and see it move to a second (B) they will still search for it in the first hiding place (A)
deffered imitation
the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
make-believe play
children act out everyday and imaginary activities
constructivist approach
Piaget's approach to cognitive development in which children discover virtually all knowledge about their world through their own activity
schemes
specific psychological structures-organized ways of making sense of experiences
mental representations
internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate (images [mental pictures of objects, people, places, etc], and concepts)
adaptation
involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment (involves assimilation and accommodation)
assimilation
we use our current schemes to interpret the external world
accomodation
we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely
equilibration
In Piaget's theory, the back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium that produces more effective schemes
organization
In Piaget's theory, a process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment, through which new schemes are formed, rearranged, and linked with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system
sensorimotor stage
spans the first 2 years of life; infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads
circular reaction
In Piaget's theory, a means of adapting schemes in which babies try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity
goal-directed behavior
coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems
object permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
A-not-B search error
if they reach several times for an object at a first hiding place (A) and see it move to a second (B) they will still search for it in the first hiding place (A)
deffered imitation
the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
make-believe play
children act out everyday and imaginary activities
violation-of-expectation method
a method in which researchers habituate babies to a physical event and then determine whether they recover to (look longer at) an expected even or an unexpected event. Recovery to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is "surprised" by a deviation from physical reality, as indicated by a heightened attention and interest, and therefore is aware of that aspect of the physical world
analogical problem-solving
taking a solution strategy from one problem and applying it to other relevant problems
preoperational stage
spans ages 2 to 7, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in mental representation
sociodramatic play
the make-believe with others that is underway by 2 1/2 and increases rapidly during the next few years
dual representation
viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
operations
mental representations of actions that obey logical rules (according to Piaget, small children are not capable of operations)
egocentrism
the failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own
animistic thinking
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions
conservation
refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
centration
focusing on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
reversibility
the ability to go through a series of steps in a problem and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point (pouring water back into original container)
hierarchical classification
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
concrete operational stage
extends from about 7 to 11 years, marks a major turning point in cognitive development. Thought is far more logical, flexible, and organized than it was earlier, more closely resembling the reasoning of adults rather than that of children
seriation
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
transitive inference
ability of a concrete-operational child to seriate mentally
cognitive maps
children's mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as their neighborhood or school
horizontal decalage
development within a stage
formal operational stage
around age 11 young people ener this stage in which they develop the capacity for abstract, scientific thinking
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
a formal operational problem-solving strategy in which adolescents start with a general theory of all possible factors that might affect an outcome, deducing from its specific hypotheses (or predictions) about what might happen and testing these hypotheses in an orderly fashion to see which ones work in the real world
propositional though
adolescents can evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without refering to real-world circumstances
imaginary audience
adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
personal fable
cognitive distortion with imaginary audience; because teenagers are sure that others are observing and thinking about them, they develop an inflated opinion of their own importance and feel that they are special and unique
logical necessity
a basic property of propositional reasoning, which specifies that the accuracy of conclusions drawn from premises rests on the rules of logic, not on real-world confirmation
core knowledge perspective
infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems referred to as core domains of thought. Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition
theory theory
a theory that assumes that children draw on innate concepts to form naiive theories, or explanations of everyday evenst in each core domain of thought. Then they test their theory against experience, revising it when it cannot adequately account for new information
private speech
children's self-directed speech
zone of proximal development
a range of tasks too dificult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skilled peers
intersubjectivity
the process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
scaffolding
adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
guided participation
a broader concept than scaffolding that refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying features of communication
reciprocal teaching
a teacher and two to four students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage. Within the dialogues, group members apply four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting
cooperative learning
small groups of classmates work towards common goals