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56 Cards in this Set

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Different theorists conceptualize intelligence differently, but most agree that intelligence:
is adaptive, involves use of prior knowledge to analyze and understand new situations effectively, involves learning ability – people who are intelligent in particular areas learn new information and behaviors more quickly and easily than people who are less intelligent in those domains, involves complex interaction and coordination of many different mental processes. Is culture specific.
Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began kindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely to require Robert's fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.
Fluid – adaptability in new situations, gaining information quickly, result of biological factors. Crystallized – knowledge and skills accumulated though experience and prior learning, affected by both nature and nurture.
If teachers consider Gardner's view of intelligence, they would be most likely to conclude that:
intelligence is “the ability to solve problems or fasion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting or community”. “intelligence is always an interaction between potentials in the brain-mind and opportunities for learning in the culture”
Only one of the following statements reflects an accurate comparison of Gardner's and Sternberg's theories of intelligence. Which one?
Gardner – (see above). Sternbergs – Analytical, Creative, and Practical intelligences.
The original purpose of intelligence tests is still their main purpose today that is, to:
determine school success and diagnose learning problems
Which one of the following statements is most accurate about assessing cognitive abilities in infants and toddlers?
Infants can be hard to assess (may be sleepy, fussy, have short attention spans, lose interest, or misinterpret instructions)
Poor nutrition is a problem for many children who live in poverty. Which one of the following situations is likely to be associated with poor nutrition?
attention, memory, abstract reasoning, and general school achievement
Researchers have suggested a variety of explanations for why children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) families often perform less well on IQ tests and in school than their higher SES counterparts. Three of the following are common explanations. Which one is not?
High quality preschool programs have a positive effect, poor nutrition, lack of healthcare, and greater-than-average exposure to environmental toxin, parents work long hours, single parents, parents with limited education background, lower school attendance, teachers have lower expectations of these students.
Cattell proposed that general intelligence ("g") is composed of two distinct components. These are ___________ intelligence and _____________ intelligence
fluid ; crystallized
Sternberg, in his triarchic theory of intelligence, focused on the nature of intelligence itself. He proposed that intelligent behavior involves an interplay of all of the factors below except the:
analytical – required to solve problems & judge the quality of ideas, creative – required to formulate good problems and ideas in the first place; to explore beyond traditional ideas, practical – needed to use the ideas and their analysis in an effective way in one’s everyday life. Environmental context – adapting to environment around using prior experience. Cognitive processes – how one thinks
Laura has a good understanding of how she is likely to respond emotionally in various situations. She is also very aware of what motivates her behaviors and intentions. Gardner would say that Laura has a high level of ____________________ intelligence.
ests of general intelligence (IQ tests) typically assess:
current cognitive functioning
Twin studies show that monozygotic (identical) twins raised separately have similar IQ scores. This evidence:
shows that it is partially genetic
Studies of identical twins show that twins raised together are more similar in IQ than twins raised separately. This evidence
it also has to do with effects of home evironment
Three of the following factors have been identified as having an influence on IQ scores. Which one has not?
Home environment, early nutrition, early intervention, formal schooling, Flynn effect
The Flynn effect refers to a gradual:
increase in intelligenct test performance observed in many countries over the past several decades
Which one of the following statements most accurately describes what developmental theorists mean when they talk about a language acquisition device?
LAD - Children are prewired for language, including intonations and structure of language.
Which one of the following statements best illustrates telegraphic speech?
Includes only words that are essential to get the meaning across
Reuben says "Jooz!" as he stretches his arms in the direction of his juice bottle. This can best be described as an example of:
If you wanted to enhance children's and adolescents' ability to understand what other people say, you might use three of the following strategies. Which one would you be least likely to use?
1. expand on child’s telegraphic speech 2. teach irregular forms of verb and comparative adjectives 3. describe various sentence structures and give child practice 4. provide opportunities for children to express their ideas in “formal” ways
Which one of the following is the best example of pragmatics in language?
Rules for engaging in appropriate and effective communication
Nativists believe that language development has a biological basis. They have used three major arguments to support their perspective. Which of the following arguments does not support their perspective?
LAD (see above), there is a sensitive period for language development
In regard to language development, Information Processing Theory proposes that:
use reasoning, working memory and attention to explain
In regard to language development, Sociocultural Theory proposes that:
social interaction and culture aid in language development
In regard to language acquisition, semantic development refers to:
name explosion – suddent increase in infant’s vocabulary, especially nouns. Lexical words vs. grammatical words
In regard to language acquisition, syntactic development refers to:
child has learned that universal function of language: expression of thoughts, holophrase – single word that expresses a complete thought. 2 word sentences. Telegraphic speech – includes only words essential for meatning
Janis uses "teddy bear" to refer to all of her stuffed toys. This is an example of:
Infants and children form attachments with:
Stranger anxiety first appears around ____________________ months of age.
7 months to 2 years
Positive attachment bonds remain important to development:
on long-term development, positive interpersonal relationships
Kegan and his mother are participating in the "strange situation" experiment. Kegan plays with the toys provided and hardly seems to notice when his mother leaves the room. When mother returns to the room, Kegan fails to greet her. Kegan's attachment classification is:
insecure avoidant
You have just stepped into the 4-year-old room at your local day care center. Moments later, Juanita approaches you with a book and her favorite bear. She wants to know if you would like to read a book. You surmise that Juanita is ____________attached to her primary caregiver.
In regard to temperament, developmental psychologists believe that:
it is a disposition in response to the world, ways in which emotions are expressed by an individual, affected by experience and social relationships
Mr. Sanborne wants to promote emotional development in his 5th graders. Which of the following techniques is least likely to be effective?
Provide a warm, trusting, and accepting environment. Encourage expression of feelings. Implement research-based principles to emotional development. Encourage children to identify others’ emotional reactions. Offer age-appropriate outlets of emotional expression. Discuss emotions experienced by characters in literature and history. Help children handle anxiety.
Which one of the following best describes Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development?
6 stages, describes important changes that do occur throughout life. Reflects the synthesis of nature, nurture, and individual motivation in development.
From the perspective of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, children's ability to trust those around them stems from:
their caregiver
Kathleen is 2 years old. She very much wants to do things for herself dressing herself, brushing her teeth, and so on in the morning. Most of the time her mother will not let her do such things because she is so slow and clumsy. Today Mom tells Kathleen she can dress herself, but before long Mom is saying: "Kathleen, you've got your pants on backwards again! Can't you ever put your clothes on right? Here, let me do it. You're making me late for work." If Kathleen hears this kind of talk very often, Erikson suggests that Kathleen might be at risk for developing a sense of:
shame and doubt
Which one of the following best describes attachment in the early years?
Child’s first bond. Enduring emotional tie that unites child to caregivers. Contributes far-reaching effects on children’s development.
When a new child care provider picks up 11-month-old Ceci for the first time, Ceci screams hysterically and struggles to get away. Which one of the following is the most likely explanation for Ceci's behavior?
Stranger anxiety
While Mother fills out an application form at a new preschool, 18-month-old Colin happily explores a few toys nearby. When Mom momentarily steps out to use the washroom, Colin is upset, but quickly calms down and smiles upon her return. Colin's behavior is most consistent with a(n):
secure attachment
3 of the following factors are influential in young children's ability to form 1 or more secure attachments to caregivers. Which factor is least important?
Children’s contributions/children’s dispositions (how they handle stress, anxiety, etc…)
Three of the following strategies should help young children form healthy attachments to you (as caregiver) or their parents. Which one is not consistent with recommendations presented in the textbook?
Encourage multiple attachments. Encourage social bonds in children. Encourage empathy in children. Be willing to seek professional guidance when serious attachment problems arise.
Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding gender differences in emotion?
None in infancy. Early/Middle Childhood – boys are more likely to show anger than girls, girls are more likely to dwell on problems
Which one of the following children is displaying extrinsic motivation?
External factors unrelated to task and outside of the individual. (praise/rewards)
The basic idea underlying operant conditioning is that:
based on reinforcements and punishments. (positive and negative)
Primary reinforcers are stimuli or events that:
are needed biologically (food, comfort, sleep, etc…)
Which one of the following is a primary reinforcer?
Food, shelter, clothing, love, comfort…
Curtis works hard at school because he knows it will lead to good grades, praise from his mother, and money from his father. It is clear that _____________________ are effective with Curtis.
positive reinforcers/secondary reinforcers
Sam is at the mall with his friends. The other boys are playing video games, but Sam is just watching. Although Sam knows that playing video games is fun, he wants to save up his money to buy a computer. It is clear, then, that Sam:
understands delayed gratification
Which one of the following statements best describes vicarious reinforcement?
Behavior increases as a result of seeing someone else be rewarded for it
Which one of the following examples illustrates vicarious reinforcement?
See above
Three of the following concepts reflect some degree of intrinsic motivation. Which one does not?
Internal desire to perform a particular task
Which of the following statements most clearly illustrates self-efficacy?
Higher chance of activity being undertaken
Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy. Which one?
Knowing what one likes, do what they know they are good at
Which one of the following teenagers has situational interest rather than personal interest?
Evoked by something in the environment; temporary
Motivation is an important influence on behavior. Which of the following statements is not true about motivation?
An internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior overtime. Motivation is what gets you going, keeps you going, and determines where you’re trying to go.