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80 Cards in this Set

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The correct sequence of prenatal development is:
a. embryonic period, fetal period, germinal period.
b. embryonic period, germinal period, fetal period.
c. germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period.
d. fetal period, embryonic period, germinal period.
c. germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period.
Which of the following prenatal periods is the longest?
a. germinal
b. embryonic
c. fetal
d. neonatal
c. fetal
The organ that develops within the pregnant woman’s uterus to protect and nourish the developing prenatal organism is called the:
placenta.
The embryo has all the basic organs and body parts (except male and female organs) at approximately how many weeks after conception?
8 weeks
The age of viability refers to:
the age at which the fetus can survive outside of the uterus with specialized medical care.
Of the following factors, which is the MOST crucial in determining whether a preterm newborn will survive?
a. gestational maturity
b. race
c. method of delivery
d. gender
a. gestational maturity
Babies born before ____ weeks of gestation do not survive.
22
What is a teratogen?
A substance that increases the risk of prenatal abnormalities
During prenatal development, the time of greatest susceptibility to teratogens is the:
critical period.
A term that refers to the result of a combination of teratogens is:
interaction effect.
A U.S. law requiring that folic acid be added to manufactured cereal and bread has resulted in a decrease in:
neural-tube defects.
Eating undercooked meat or handling cat feces can lead to:
toxoplasmosis.
Research indicates that a woman puts her fetus at risk of developing fetal alcohol syndrome if she:
a. drinks moderately.
b. binge drinks.
c. occasionally drinks.
d. all of these answers are correct.
d. all of these answers are correct.
Which of the following postconception testing methods is used to detect neural-tube defects and does not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion?
a. alpha-fetoprotein assay
b. chorionic villi sampling
c. amniocentesis
d. PAPPA assay
a. alpha-fetoprotein assay
A “breech” baby is positioned:
buttocks or feet first.
The Apgar scale measures all of the following except:
a. heart rate.
b. color.
c. size.
d. respiratory effect.
c. size.
What is anoxia?
a lack of oxygen during birth
A preterm baby is born ____ or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of a typical pregnancy.
3
A small for gestational age (SGA) baby:
weighs significantly lower than expected.
Kangaroo care is a technique designed to help:
low-birthweight babies
The first two weeks of development after conception is called the:
germinal period.
The stage of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week after conception until birth is:
fetal.
The embedding of the prenatal organism into the lining of the uterus is called:
implantation.
Which of the following happens during the fetal period?
a. implantation.
b. The neural tube forms.
c. The blastocyst becomes an embryo.
d. The genitals develop.
d. The genitals develop.
The age after conception at which a preterm newborn can survive with specialized medical care is:
22 weeks.
Advances in which area are CRITICAL in attaining the age of viability?
brain functioning.
Teratology is the study of:
birth defects.
Certain teratogens are relatively harmless in small doses but become harmful once exposure reaches a certain level. This is called:
the threshold effect.
Exposure to teratogens during weeks 3 to 4 of pregnancy may result in birth defects to which of the following parts of the body?
a. lip
b. teeth
c. genitalia
d. heart
d. heart
Which factor is associated with neural-tube defects?
folic acid deficiency
The use of tobacco during pregnancy:
may affect the baby’s urinary tract.
According to the text, the use of caffeine during pregnancy:
is not a problem as long as it is used in moderation.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is associated with:
abnormal facial features.
Which of the following prenatal tests uses high frequency sound waves?
sonogram
In a normal birth, the spontaneous onset of labor is set in motion by:
fetal hormones that trigger uterine contractions.
Which of the following Apgar scores indicates that a newborn is in critical condition?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 7
d. 10
a. 3
Low birthweight (LBW) is defined as a body weight less than ____ at birth.
5 ½ pounds
An infant born at 34 weeks would be classified as:
a preterm birth.
Which term describes feelings of inadequacy and sadness following the birth of a baby?
a. parental alliance
b. teratogen effect
c. interaction effect
d. postpartum depression
d. postpartum depression
Parental involvement in kangaroo care consists of:
skin-to skin-contact between parent(s) and newborn.
Chromosomes are molecules of:
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
How many pairs of chromosomes are contained in an average human cell?
23
A genome is:
a full set of instructions to make a living organism.
What is formed when a sperm cell and an ovum fuse?
zygote
What chromosomal pair determines a person’s sex?
23rd
Carlson received a blue-eyed allele from BOTH of his biological parents. What is the term to describe this gene pattern?
homozygous
The chromosomal makeup of a typical girl is:
XX
Which type of twins originates from one zygote that splits apart?
monozygotic
Alicia and Sergio have decided to use assisted reproductive technology (ART) to conceive. What would be the USUAL reason for them to consider ART?
a. Sergio has a high sperm count.
b. Sergio wants twins.
c. Alicia is not able to ovulate.
d. Alicia’s fallopian tubes are clear.
c. Alicia is not able to ovulate.
Traits affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental, are referred to as:
multifactorial.
A person with a recessive gene in his or her genotype that is not expressed in the phenotype is called:
a carrier
When a pair of alleles interacts, the resulting phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than that of the other allele. This pattern is called:
a dominant-recessive pattern.
If a zygote has genes for “musical genius,” which is true?
a. The zygote will become a person who is a musical genius.
b. Nothing can prevent the development of a trait for musical genius.
c. Genotype equals phenotype.
d. Additional genes and factors in the environment may result in a trait for musical genius.
d. Additional genes and factors in the environment may result in a trait for musical genius.
The variable that MOST often correlates with chromosomal abnormalities is:
a. parental exposure to radiation.
b. the pregnant mother’s drug use.
c. the older age of the mother.
d. the older age of the father.
c. the older age of the mother.
Down syndrome is a condition in which an individual has three copies of:
chromosome 21.
Melissa has ONE X chromosome and underdeveloped female organs. What is her condition?
Turner syndrome
Each of the following results from an atypical number of chromosomes EXCEPT:
a. Tourette syndrome.
b. Turner syndrome.
c. Down syndrome.
d. Klinefelter syndrome.
a. Tourette syndrome.
Which genetic disorder is sex-linked, appears on the X chromosome, and may result in mental retardation?
fragile X syndrome
In general, genetic counseling is recommended for:
women over age 35 and men over age 40.
Suppose a couple has a 75 percent chance of conceiving a child with a lifelong, painful genetic disorder. Who makes the decision about whether the couple should try to conceive?
the couple
Each molecule of DNA is called a:
chromosome.
The typical human cell contains how many chromosomes?
23 pairs
The full set of genes for a living organism is called a:
genome.
What is a zygote?
reproductive cells that have fused
Claudia received an allele for brown eyes (B) from her father and an allele for blue eyes from her mother. Her gene pair is said to be:
heterozygous.
The chromosomal makeup of a typical male is:
XY
Which type of twin is created when two ova are fertilized by two sperm?
dizygotic
The process by which ova are surgically removed from a woman and then mixed with sperm to produce a zygote, which is then inserted into the uterus, is called:
in vitro fertilization.
_____ refers to traits that are affected by many genes, and _____refers to traits that are influenced by many factors.
Polygenic; multifactorial
Which of the following regarding the human genome is TRUE?
a. Human genes are unique to the human species and found in no other species.
b. Humans have approximately 250 genes.
c. Humans and chimpanzees have 99 percent of their genes in common.
d. The mother’s ovum determines the chromosomal sex of the child.
c. Humans and chimpanzees have 99 percent of their genes in common.
A gene is recessive when:
its expression is masked by a more influential gene.
Monozygotic twins Randy and Rowdy have identical genes. They have many similarities, but what explains the differences in their height, weight, and behavior?
Something in one of the boy’s environments affected his genes differently than it affected his brother.
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when the zygote’s cells have:
more or fewer than 46 chromosomes.
A person with three copies of chromosome 21 has:
Down syndrome.
An embryo cannot develop without:
an X chromosome.
Which condition affects only boys and has a chromosomal pattern of two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (XXY)?
Klinefelter syndrome
Which genetic disorder is most common among African Americans?
Sickle-cell anemia
A genetic disorder that causes the inability to metabolize an amino acid and may lead to brain damage and mental retardation is called:
phenylketonuria (PKU).
Juan and Rosey are planning on having a baby. At what age is Rosey a candidate for genetic counseling due to an increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities?
36
Which of the following information about a couple would NOT be of interest to a genetic counselor?
a. ethnicity
b. age
c. socioeconomic status
d. family history of genetic disorders
c. socioeconomic status