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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Imagine that a reseacher concludes that 5 year olds in the 1950s learn more slowly than the 5 year olds of today. Why could this be inaccurate?
Cohort Effects
An experimental design permits inferences about cause and effect because
all participants are treated exactly alike except for changes in the independent variable
Ethnographers strive to minimize their influence on the culture that they are observing by
becoming part of the cultural community they are studying
A major advantage of structured observations is that they
are useful for studying behaviors that investigators rarely have an opportunity to see in everyday life
________ has risen to the forefront of the field because it provides the most differentiated and thorough account of contextual influences on children’s development
Ecological systems theory
A(n) ________psychologist would be MOST interested in examining the following research question: What role does the infant’s capacity to imitate facial expressions play in survival?
evolutionary developmental
Vygotsky believed that _________ produce development.
cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society
Observations of ________ led to the concept of the critical period in human development.
According to ________ theory, as children develop their ways of thinking adapt to better fit with, or represent, the external world.
________ theory emphasizes the role of _______ in children’s learning.
Bandura’s; cognition
According to the behavioristic approach, the proper focus of study for psychology should be:
directly observable events
The primary purpose of the first successful intelligence test, developed by Binet and Simon, was to
identify children who needed special education services.
characterized children as naturally endowed with a plan for development.
Both Rousseau and Hall
Charles Darwin is considered the forefather of scientific child study because
his theory prompted other researchers to study children and their development directly
John Locke’s philosophy:
emphasizes the possibility of many courses of development.
During the sixteenth century, the Puritans believed that children were
naturally inclined toward evil unless given the proper guidance and instruction.
Theorists who emphasize ________ are most likely to focus on the importance of ________
Change; nurture
Our knowledge of child development is interdisciplinary. What does this mean?
Individuals from diverse fields have contributed to our knowledge of child development.
Inside each human cell are rodlike structures called that store and transmit genetic information
A unique feature of DNA is that it can duplicate itself through a process called
A person whose 23rd pair of chromosomes is xy
is male
Identical twins are created when
a fertilized egg divides into two separate clusters of cells
Allison has blonde hair and Albert has dark hair. If they have four children, which scenario is most likely
all four children will have brown hair
Maya tested positive for PKU at birth. For Maya to have a normal lifespan, she will
have to be placed on a diet low in phenylalanine
________ are more likely than ________ to be affected by X-linked diseases
Males; females
________ helps explain why children are more likely to develop asthma if their mothers, rather than their fathers, suffer from it
Genetic imprinting
A child born with an extra 21st chromosome has
down syndrome
Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes
often are not recognized until adolescence
Except for ________ and ________, prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely, since other methods have some chance of injuring the fetus
maternal blood analysis; ultrasound
When a marriage is tense and hostile, parents are less responsive to their children’s needs. This is an example of a(n) ________ influence between parents and their children