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207 Cards in this Set

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Adaptable marriage relationship
A marital relationship that allows and encourages partners to grow and change.
Arranged marriage
Unions in which parents choose their children's marriage partners.
Assortative mating
Social psychological filtering process in which individuals gradually filter out those among their pool of eligibles who they believe would not make the best spouse.
Bride price
Money or property that the future groom pays the future bride's family so that he can marry her.
Courtship
The process whereby a couple develops a mutual commitment to marriage.
Cross-national marriage
Marriage in which spouses are from different countries.
Date rape (acquaintance rape)
Forced or unwanted sexual contact between people who are on a date.
Dowry
A sum of money or property brought to the marriage by the female.
Endogamy
Marrying within one's own social group.
Exchange theory
Theoretical perspective that sees relationships as determined by the exchange of resources and the reward-cost balance of that exchange. This theory predicts that people tend to marry others whose social class, education, physical attractiveness, and even self-esteem are similar to their own.
Exogamy
Marrying a partner from outside one's own social group.
Experience hypothesis
The idea that the independent variable in a hypothesis is responsible for changes to a dependent variable. With regard to marriage, the experience hypothesis holds that something about the experience of being married itself causes certain results for spouses.
Free-choice culture
Culture or society in which individuals choose their own marriage partners, a choice usually based at least somewhat on romance.
Geographic availability
Traditionally known in the marriage and family literature as propinquity or proximity and referring to the fact that people tend to meet potential mates who are present in their regional environment.
Heterogamy
Marriage between partners who differ in race, age, education, religious background, or social class.
Homogamy
Marriage between partners of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class.
Hypergamy
A marriage in which a person gains social rank by marrying someone of higher rank.
Hypogamy
Marriage to a partner with lower social and/or economic status than one's own.
Interethnic marriage
Marriage between spouses who are not defined as of different races but do belong to different ethnic groups.
Intergenerational transmission of divorce risk
The tendency for children of divorced parents to have a greater propensity to divorce than children from intact families.
Interracial marriage
Marriage of a partner of one (socially defined) race to someone of a different race.
Marital stability
The quality or situation of remaining married.
Marriage market
The sociological concept that potential mates take stock of their personal and social characteristics and then comparison shop or bargain for the best buy (mate) they can get.
Mate selection risk
Youths from divorced families were more likely to select high-risk partners who were also from divorced families and who were impulsive, socially irresponsible, and had a history of antisocial behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse, minor misdemeanors, troubles with the law, problems in school and at work, fighting, and an unstable job history.
Pool of eligibles
A group of individuals who, by virtue of background or social status, are most likely to be considered eligible to make culturally compatible marriage partners.
Rape myth
Belief about rape that functions to blame the victim and exonerate the rapist.
Role-making
Improvising a course of action as a way of enacting a role. In role-making, we may use our acts to alter the traditional expectations and obligations associated with a role. This concept emphasizes the variability in the ways different individuals enact a particular role.
Selection hypothesis
The idea that many of the changes found in a dependent variable, which might be assumed to be associated with the independent variable, are really due to sample selection. For instance, the selection hypothesis posits that many of the benefits associated with marriage--for example, higher income and wealth, along with better health--are not necessarily due to the fact of being married but, rather, to the personal characteristics of those who choose--or are selected into--marriage. Similarly, the selection hypothesis posits that many of the characteristics associated with cohabitation result not from the practice of cohabiting itself but from the personal characteristics of those who choose to cohabit.
Status exchange hypothesis
Regarding interracial/interethnic marriage, the argument that an individual might trade his or her socially defined superior racial/ethnic status for the economically or educationally superior status of a partner in a less-privileged racial/ethnic group.
Theory of complementary needs
Theory developed by social scientist Robert Winch suggesting that we are attracted to partners whose needs complement our own. In the positive view of this theory, we are attracted to others whose strengths are harmonious with our own so that we are more effective as a couple than either of us would be alone.
Belligerence
A negative communication/relationship behavior that challenges the partner's power and authority.
Bonding fighting
Fighting that brings intimates closer together rather than leaving them just as far apart or pushing them even farther apart.
Contempt
One of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, in which a partner feels that his or her spouse is inferior or undesirable.
Criticism
One of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse that involves making disapproving judgments or evaluations of one's partner.
Defensiveness
One of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse that means preparing to defend oneself against what one presumes is an upcoming attack.
Displacement
A passive-aggressive behavior in which a person expresses anger with another by being angry at or damaging people or things the other cherishes.
Family cohesion
That intangible emotional quality that holds groups together and gives members a sense of common identity.
Female-demand/male-withdraw communication pattern
A cycle of negative verbal expression by a wife and withdrawal by the husband in the fact of his partner's demands. In other words, women tend to deal with problems by bringing them into the open through initiatives that have an attention-getting negative tone. Men tend to withdraw emotionally from the disagreement or conflict.
Four Hoursemen of the Apocalypse
Contempt, criticism, defensiveness, and stonewalling--marital communication behaviors delineated by John Gottman that often indicate a couple's future divorce.
Leveling
Being transparent, authentic, and explicit about how one truly feels, especially concerning the more conflictive or hurtful aspects of an intimate relationship. Among other things, leveling between intimates implies self-disclosure and commitment (to intimacy).
Listener backchannel
Brief vocalizations, head nods, and facial movements that convey to the speaker that the listener is tracking what the speaker is saying.
Mixed, or double, messages
Two simultaneous messages that contradict each other. For example, society gives us mixed messages regarding family values and individualistic values and about premarital sex. People, too, can send mixed messages, as when a partner says, "Of course I always like to talk with you" while turning up the TV.
Passive-aggression
Expressing anger at some person or situation indirectly, through nagging, nitpicking, or sarcasm, for example, rather than directly and openly.
Positive affect
The expression, either verbal or nonverbal, of one's feelings of affection toward another.
Rapport talk
In Deborah Tannen's terms, this is conversation engaged in by women aimed primarily at gaining or reinforcing rapport or intimacy.
Report talk
In Deborah Tannen's terms, this is conversation engaged in by men aimed primarily at conveying information.
Sabotage
A passive-aggressive action in which a person tries to spoil or undermine some activity another has planned. Sabotage is not always consciously planned.
Stonewalling
One of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse that involves refusing to listen to a partner's complaints.
Authoritarian parenting style
All decision making is in parents' hands, and the emphasis is on compliance with rules and directives. Parents are more punitive than supportive, and use of physical punishment is likely.
Authoritative parenting style
Parents accept the child's personality and talents and are emotionally supportive. At the same time, they consciously set and enforce rules and limits, whose rationale is usually explained to the child. Parents provide guidance and direction and state expectations for the child's behavior. Parents are in charge, but the child is given responsibility and must take the initiative in completing schoolwork and other tasks and in solving child-level problems.
Confucian training doctrine
Concept used to describe Asian and Asian American parenting philosophy that emphasizes blending parental love, concern, involvement, and physical closeness with strict and firm control.
Family foster care
Foster care that takes place in a trained and licensed foster parent's home.
Formal kinship care
Out-of-home placement with biological relatives of children who are in the custody of the state.
Foster care
Care provided to children by other than their parents as a result of state intervention.
Grandparent families
Families in which a grandparent acts as primary parent to grandchildren.
Group home
One type of foster-care setting in which several children are cared for around-the-clock by paid professionals who work in shifts and live elsewhere.
Hierarchical parenting
Concept used to describe a Hispanic parenting philosophy that blends warm emotional support for children with demand for significant respect for parents and other authority figures, including older extended-family members.
Laissez-faire parenting style
Overly permissive parenting. Children set their own standards for behavior, with little or no parental guidance or authority. Parents and indulgent but not necessarily involved in a supportive way with the child's everyday activities and problems.
Para-parent
An unrelated adult who informally plays a parentlike role for a child.
Parenting alliance
The degree to which partners agree with and support each other as parents.
Parenting style
A general manner of relating to and disciplining children.
Primary parent
Parent who takes full responsibility for meeting the child's physical and emotional needs by providing the major part of the child's care directly or by managing the child's care by others or by doing both.
Shared parenting
Mother and father (or two same-sex parents) who both take full responsibility as parents.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
Federal legislation that replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children and whereby government welfare assistance to poor parents is limited to five years for most families, with most adult recipients required to find work within two years.
Transition to parenthood
The circumstances involved in assuming the parent role.
Attachment
"An active, affective, enduring, and reciprocal bond between two individuals that is believed to be established through repeated action over time."
Center care
Group child care provided in day-care centers for a relatively large number of children.
Child care
The care and education of children by people other than their parents. Child care may include before- and after- school care for older children and overnight care when employed parents must travel, as well as day care for preschool children.
Commuter marriage
A marriage in which the two partners live in different locations and commute to spend time together.
Eldercare
Care provided to older generations.
Family child care
Child care provided in a caregiver's home.
Family-friendly workplace policies
Workplace policies that are supportive of employee efforts to combine family and work commitments.
Family leave
A leave of absence from work granted to family members to care for new infants, newly adopted children, ill children, or aging parents, or to meet similar family needs or emergencies.
Flexible scheduling
A type of employment scheduling that includes scheduling options such as job sharing or flextime.
Flextime
A policy that permits an employee some flexibility to adjust working hours to suit family needs or personal preference.
Good provider role
A specialized masculine role that emerged in this country around the 1830s and that emphasized the husband as the only or primary economic provider for his family. The good provider role had disappeared by the 1970s as an expected masculine role.
Househusband
A man who takes a full-time family-care role, rather than being employed; the male counterpart to a housewife.
In-home caregiver
A caregiver who provides child care in the child's home, either coming in by the day or as a live-in caregiver.
Job sharing
Two people sharing one job.
Labor force
A social invention that arose with the industrialization of the nineteenth century, when people characteristically became wage earners, hiring out their labor to someone else.
Leisure gap
The second shift for women means a "leisure gap" between husbands and wives, as women sacrifice leisure--and sleep--to accomplish unpaid family work.
Market approach to child care
Child-care arrangement of working parents; other people are hired to care for children while parents are at their jobs.
Market work
Employment--that is, work for pay--as contrasted with unpaid household work.
Motherhood penalty
Describes the fact that motherhood has a tremendous negative lifetime impact on earnings, the "long-term earnings gap."
Mothering approach to child care
A family's child-care arrangement that gives preference to the mother's caregiving role. A couple balance nonemployment of the mother with extra jobs or hours for the father, or, if the mother must work to maintain the family economically, her employment role is minimized.
Nanny
An in-home child-care worker who care for a family's children either on a live-n basis or by the day; may include traveling with the family.
Neotraditional families
Families that value traditional gender roles and organize their family life in these terms as far as practicable. Formal male dominance is softened by an egalitarian spirit.
Occupational segregation
The distribution of men and women into substantially different occupations. Women are over-represented in clerical and service work, for example, whereas men dominate the higher professions and the upper levels of management.
Opting out
A woman's leaving the labor force, permanently or temporarily, in order to devote full time to child-raising.
Parenting approach to child care
In this approach, child care is shared by the parents on as equal a basis as possible. Working parents try to restructure their employment arrangements to make this possible.
Reinforcing cycle
A cycle regarding women's earnings and paid and unpaid family work in which cultural expectations and persistent discrimination result in employed males receiving higher average earnings than women employed full time and, hence, in women's doing more unpaid family work to the detriment of their careers.
Second shift
Sociologist Arlie Hochschild's term for the domestic work that employed women must perform after coming home from a day on the job.
Self-care
An approach to child care for working parents in which the child is at home or out without an adult caretaker. Parents may be in touch by phone.
Sequencing mom
A mother who chooses to leave paid employment in order to spend some years at home raising children, but who plans to return to work eventually.
Shift work
As defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, any work schedule in which more than half of an employee's hours are before 8 a.m. or after 4 p.m.
Stay-at-home dad or mom
A martial or cohabiting partner who is not employed but remains at home to take care of children and other domestic responsibilities.
Trailing spouse
The spouse of a relocated employee who moves with him or her.
Two-career marriage
Marriage in which both partners have a strong commitment to the lifetime development of both careers. Also called dual-career couple or dual-career family.
Two-earner marriage
Marriage in which the wife as well as the husband is employed, but her work is not viewed as a lifetime career. His may be viewed as a "job" rather than a career, as well. Sometimes termed dual-earner marriage or two-paycheck marriage.
Unpaid family work
The necessary tasks of attending to both the emotional needs of all family members and the practical needs of dependent members, such as children or elderly parents, and maintaining the family domicile.
Wage gap
The persistent difference in earnings between men and women.
Research suggests several qualities to look for when choosing a spouse. Which of the following is NOT one of those qualities?

a. Someone who demonstrates good communication and problem-solving skills.
b. A physically attractive, healthy person.
c. A socially responsible, respectful, and emotionally supportive mate.
d. Someone who is committed to the relationship and to the value of marriage itself.
b. A physically attractive, healthy person.
________ theory posits that during infancy and childhood, individuals develop a general style of bonding with others.
Attachment
When both spouses come from a divorced family, the probability of their own divorce is higher. Family scholars refer to this phenomenon as the ________ risk.
intergenerational transmission of divorce
With global Westernization, ________ are replacing arranged marriage as the preferred way to select mates throughout the world.
free choice marriages
Americans tend to marry people of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class. This behavior reflects:
Homogamy
In 1967, in the case of Loving v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that:
interracial marriage must be considered legally valid in all states.
From a(n) ________ theoretical perspective, research with seriously dating couples shows that they pass through a series of fairly predictable stages.
Interactionist
Which of the following is NOT one of the "rape myths" discussed in the text?

a. Rapists are mentally ill.
b. Statutory rape is not a crime.
c. Men cannot control their sexual urges.
d. The rape was somehow provoked by the victim.
b. Statutory rape is not a crime.
The ________ hypothesis assumes that individuals who choose serial cohabitation are different from those who do not; these differences translate into higher divorce rates.
selection
Psychologist Scott Stanley identifies four benefits of premarital education. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

a. It sends a message that marriage matters.
b. It prevents divorce.
c. It can slow couples down to foster deliberation.
d. It can help couples learn of options if they need help later.
b. It prevents divorce.
The text points out that couples who communicate mutual affection create a contagious "________ effect" so that the household atmosphere becomes one of emotional support.
spiraling
The text refers to the emotional bonding of family members with the term:
family cohesion.
According to the text's discussion, marital anger and conflict are:
experienced in even the happiest of couples.
Chronic criticism, nagging, nitpicking, and sarcasm are all forms of:
passive-aggression.
In John Gottman's investigations, ________ was the only variable that predicted both marital stability and marital happiness among stable couples.
the amount of positive affect in the conflict
The text observes that when faced with a complaint from their partner, men tend to withdraw emotionally while women do not. This response is so common that therapists have named it the "________ pattern."
female-demand/male-withdraw
According to the text, contempt, criticism, defensiveness, stonewalling, and belligerence:
characterize unhappy marriages and signal impending divorce.
Joanna and Richard have been having a bad day. Joanna asks Richard what is wrong. Richard replies, "Oh, nothing," but the look on his face and his body language suggest otherwise. Richard's behavior reflects:
the silent treatment.
ENRICH and PREP are training programs for married couples that emphasize:
couple empathy and communication.
Success in marriage has to do with a couple's ________, perhaps more than any other social indicator emphasized by social scientists in earlier studies of marital adjustment.
gentleness and humor in relating to each other
According to the text's discussion, which of the following is NOT one of the advantages of today's parents?

a. Parents are confronted with more questions about how to rear their children.
b. Parents are likely to have had some exposure to formal knowledge about child development and child-rearing techniques.
c. Many fathers are more emotionally involved with their children than they were several decades ago.
d. Technology has vastly improved health care.
a. Parents are confronted with more questions about how to rear their children.
What percentage of new mothers experience postpartum depression?
10%
The new image of a "good" father in today's society says that fathers:
can make less money, if they stay at home more.
It is estimated that, at least occasionally, ________ percent of U.S. parents spank their children.
more than 90
Upper-middle-class parents tend to use which parenting style?
authoritative
The ________ census was the first to offer citizens the option of identifying themselves as more than one race.
2000
Using data from the 1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, social scientist Richard Caputo concluded that, compared with other parents, grandparents who are rearing their grandchildren tend to be 2 to 4 times as likely to be:
black.
As wards of the court, foster children are financially supported by:
the state.
As many as ________ percent of foster parents stop fostering within their first year.
40
Studies show that good parenting involves at least four factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

a. Using supportive, rather than negative, communication between partners.
b. Having siblings who are experienced with parenting.
c. Being involved in a child's life and school.
d. Adequate economic resources.
b. Having siblings who are experienced with parenting.
Only since the Industrial Revolution has working been considered separate from family living, and only since then have the concepts of ________ emerged.
employed and unemployed
In 2006, almost ________ of mothers of children under fifteen in married-couple families were stay-at-home mothers, wives of steadily employed men, who remained out of the labor force for the entire year to "take care of home and family."
one-quarter
Brad and Janet have been married for 10 years. Janet is a prosecuting attorney. Brad stays home to care for the house and family. The text would identify Brad as a:
househusband.
Today, the statistical norm among married couples is the ________ marriage.
two-earner
Including child care, many employed wives (and just a few husbands) put in what sociologist Arlie Hochschild calls a ________ of unpaid family work that amounts to an extra month of work each year.
second shift
In general, ________ men spend more time in unpaid family work than do white men.
black
Jane is an insurance executive and lives in San Francisco. Her husband, Don, is an attorney who practices law in New York City. On the weekends, Jane may travel to New York, or Don to San Francisco so that they can be together. Jane and Don's arrangement is most specifically referred to as:
a commuter marriage.
Research has shown that the quality of child care is higher when certain conditions are present. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

a. smaller group sizes
b. a non-interference policy involving parents
c. more educated care givers
d. lower child-adult ratios
b. a non-interference policy involving parents
Greg and Bill work for the same company, in the same position. They actually share an office, since Greg works primarily mornings and weekends and Bill works in the afternoons. Greg and Bill's situation is an example of ________.
job sharing
Study after study shows that marital satisfaction is greater when:
wives feel that husbands share fairly in the household work.
Four goals of premarital counseling:
1) To evaluate the relationship w/ the possibility of deciding against marriage.
2) To help couples develop realistic yet hopeful vision of future marriage.
3) To desensitize partners to potential problems (to find red flags).
4) To teach positive ways of communicating about & resolving conflict.
Role
The expectations associated with a particular position in society or in a family.
Three main, potentially problematic topics for couples in first marriages:
1) Money--balancing job and family, dealing with financial debt brought into the marriage by one or both spouses, and what to do w/ money income
2) Sexual frequency
3) Agreeing on how much time to spend together--and finding it!

An adaptable marriage relationship . . .
allows & encourages partners to grow & change.
6 qualities of family cohesion:
1) Communication appreciate for one another.
2) Arrange personal schedules so they can do things together.
3) Have high degree of commitment to promoting one another's happiness & welfare.
4) Have some spiritual orientation.
5) Able to deal w/ crises.
6) Have positive communication patterns.
7) Resolve conflict constructively (added).
4 possible outcomes of conflict:
1) WIN/LOSE (typical)
2) LOSE/WIN
3) Compromise
4) WIN/WIN or LOSE/LOSE
Conflict exists when . . .
the actions or values of one person are incompatible w/ the values, actions, or wishes of another person.
Positive effects of conflict:
1) Create change
2) Create cohesion
3) Stimulate creative problem solving
4) Increase communication & possibly the understanding of others
5) Prevent stagnation
6) Keeps you more flexible, more responsive to change.
Functional conflict
Serves a useful purpose w/ positive results which may lead to improved relationships.
Dysfunctional conflict
Negative results (WIN/LOSE or LOSE/LOSE) & often characterized by violence.
Conflict styles
1) Turtle: withdrawal (goals dec., relationship, dec.)
2) Shark: forceful (goals inc., relationships dec.)
3) Teddy bear: soothing (goals dec. relationships inc.)
4) Owl: WIN/WIN (goals inc., relationships inc.)
Dysfunctional fight tactics:
1) Gunnysacking: keeping one's grievances secret while tossing them into an imaginary gunnysack that grows heavier & heavier over time.
2) Kitchen sink fighting: bringing in other conflicts that are totally irrelevant
3) Mixed or double messages: "nothing's wrong"
4) Fight evading (EX: leaving the house)
T/F: Conflict is good for the family.
TRUE; Research shows that engaging in conflict enhances the health of the marriage in the long-run.
Common topics of conflict among couples:
1) Handling $
2) Dividing household tasks
3) Relative relationships
4) Jobs
5) Social activities
6) Alcohol abuse
7) Moodiness
8) Handling anger
9) Children
Strategies for resolving conflict:
1) Clearly define the prblm
2) Demonstrate a mutual respect
3) Agree to cooperate w/ each other
4) Agree to make decisions together
5) Use prblm solving approach for win/win solutions
Decision making/problem solving:
1) Recognize & define the problem.
2) Establish ground rules.
3) Communicate to reach a mutual understanding.
4) Brainstorm possible alternatives.
5) Try to come to an agreement on a solution.
6) Implement the solution.
7) Evaluate solution--follow up.
8) Modify the solution if necessary.
____ _____________ is an essential component of a committed relationship; it's one of the major characteristics of strong, successful families.
Good communication
Principles & techniques of effective communication & conflict resolution:
1) Make communication a priority.
2) Establish & maintain eye contact.
3) Ask open-ended questions.
4) Give congruent messages.
5) Stay focused on the issue.
6) Say positive things about your partner.
7) Tell your partner what you want (level w/ each other).
8) Make specific resolutions to disagreements.
9) Fight fair.
10) Be honest.
11) Be willing to forgive.
12) Work together towards a win/win.
Common barriers to good communication:
1) Defensiveness
2) Blaming
3) Interrupting
4) Insults, sarcasm, put-downs
5) Exaggerating
6) Threats
7) Acting superior
Socialization of children to:
1) Protect them from harm.
2) Act in socially appropriate ways.
3) Control impulses.
4) Respect rights of others.
Coercive control (threats, punishment, force, etc.) leads to . . .
more behavior problems, anxiety, and depression.
Inductive control (setting limits)
1) Explain reasons
2) Request compliance
3) Praise compliance
4) Leads to social competence, self-esteem, develop good moral sense, more independent
Children raised by authoritative parents:
1) More psychologically competent
2) More responsible
3) More adaptive
4) More successful in school
5) More self-assured, creative, curious, socially skilled
Children raised by authoritarian parents:
1) More dependent
2) More passive
3) Less socially skilled
4) Less self-assured
5) Less intellectually curious
Children raised by indulgent parents:
1) Less mature
2) More irresponsible
3) More likely to conform to peers
4) Less likely to be leaders
Children raised by indifferent parents:
1) More impulsive
2) More delinquent behavior
3) More precocious behavior (sex, drugs, alcohol)
What contributes to how one parents?
1) How your parents parent
2) Media (EX: parenting books)
3) Culture
4) Interaction w/ spouse
5) Where you live
6) Work
Baumrind's study is more likely to apply to . . .
middle class whites.
Primary task of parenting:
to familiarize child w/ his/her culture & to teach norms & values.
Norms
Widely accepted rules.
Values
Goals or principles that are held in high esteem by a society.
Working class parents tend to emphasize . . .
obedience & conformity.
Mid- and upper-middle class parents:
1) More often foster language development,
2) Critical thinking skills,
3) Self-direction, &
4) Initiative
Working class is ______ supervised @ work. Middle class is ____ supervised @ work.
highly, less
Unemployment:
1) Can affect the way parents act toward each other & children
2) Fathers under economic pressure are more irritable & hostile to wives & children.
3) Children become more sullen, depressed, & aggressive.
T/F: Children living in poverty are more often disabled or chronically ill than other children.
TRUE; Poverty-level parents and their children have poorer nutrition; more illnesses such as asthma; schools that are less safe; and limited access to quality medical care. Relatively safe, gang-free neighborhoods are often unavailable, and parental control is harder to achieve in neighborhoods characterized by antisocial behavior.
Children raised in poverty are significantly more like (__ percent) to have emotional or behavioral difficulties than children raised in families that are not poor (__ percent).
7.8, 4.6
Reasons why transition to parenthood is more difficult:
1) Cultural pressure encourages adults to become parents even though they may not really want to.
2) Most 1st parents have little or no previous experience in childcare.
3) Transition's abrupt.
4) Adjusting includes changes in the couple's emotional & sexual relationship.
Those w/ high marital satisfaction:
1) Positive pre-child relationship
2) Realistic expectations of effects on relationship
3) Matched role expectations
4) Adaptability of couple
5) Communication & conflict resolution
Women have been entering the labor force in greater #s since the ____s.
1960
By ____, majority of married women employed outside home.
1979
Last women to move into employment outside of home?
Mothers of young children
2004: __% of all married women w/ school-aged children and __% of all married women w/ preschool-aged children were in the labor force.
76, 59
T/F: Two-career marriages are the statistical norm.
FALSE; two-earner marriages
2-career families often:
1) Outsource domestic work
2) Employ an in-home caregiver
__% of women worked part time in '05.
25
Fewer than __ of all mothers of preschool children worked full time in '04.
1/2
Mothers employed part time are more similar to . . .
full-time homemakers than to full-time employed mothers in their attitudes about wife & mother roles.
In __ of all 2-earner couples, at least 1 spouse does shift work; __ if they have children.
1/4, 1/3
__% of fathers who spend time in childcare of preschoolers worked non-day shifts.
36
Home-basd work has increased dramatically over the past decades--a __% increase btwn 1990 & 2000.
55
Doing paid work at home is declining due to . . .
competition from low-wage workers overseas.
Provider role systems:
1) Main/secondary
2) Co-providers
3) Ambivalent provider couple
4) Role-reversed provider couple
5) Househusbands
The wage gap varies considerably depend on occupation and tends to be higher in . . .
more elite, higher-paying occupations.
Female vs. male pay differences:
1) 1960-1980: $.60 on the $
2) 1996: $.74 on the $
3) 2006: $.81 on the $
More than __ of divorced Americans remarry within ten years.
3/4
Children of divorce are themselves more likely to get divorced because they have:
1) More--and more serious--personality problems
2) Neither been exposed to nor learned supportive communication or problem-solving skills
3) Less commitment to the relationship
4) More accepting attitudes toward divorce
Rape myths:
1) The rape was somehow provoked by the victim
2) Men cannot control their sexual urges
3) Rapists are mentally ill
Possibility of Breaking Up:
1) Rewards
2) Costs
3) Match to Ideal Comparison Level
4) Alternatives
5) Investments
6) Barriers to breaking up
Three factors related to marital stability:
1) Partners' attachment style
2) Age at marriage
3) Mate selection risk, due to one or both partners' having experienced parental divorce.
T/F: Cohabiting before marriage only with one's future spouse has been shown to increase the likelihood of divorce.
FALSE; Serial cohabiting
Ten Rules for a Successful Relationship:
1) Express your love verbally.
2) Be physically affectionate.
3) Express your appreciation and even admiration.
4) Share more about yourself w/ your partner than you do w/ any other person.
5) Offer each other an emotional support system.
6) Express your love materially.
7) Accept your partner's demands and put up with your partner's shortcomings.
8) Make time to be alone together.
9) Do not take your relationship for granted.
10) Do unto each other as you would have the other do unto you.
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
1) Contempt
2) Criticism
3) Defensiveness
4) Stonewalling
Ten Guidelines for Bonding Fights
1) Level w/ each other
2) To avoid attacks, use I-statements when you can
3) Avoid mixed, or double, messages
4) Choose the time and place carefully
5) Focus anger only on specific issues
6) Ask for a specific change, but be open to compromise
7) Be willing to change yourself
8) Don't try to win
9) Remember to end the argument
10) Be willing to forgive
__% of women have professional employment while __% are in service occupations.
25, 20
__% of men are in professional jobs, while __% are service workers.
17, 13