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257 Cards in this Set

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ABC-X model
A model of family crisis in which A (the stressor event) interacts w/ B (the family's resources for meeting a crisis) and w/ C (the definition the family formulates of the event) to produce X (the crisis).
Boundary ambiguity
When applied to a family, a situation in which it is unclear who is in and who is out of the family.
Family crisis
A situation (resulting from a stressor) in which the family's usual behavior patterns are ineffective and new ones are called for.
Family stress
State of tension that arises when demands tax a family's resources.
Family transitions
Expected or predictable changes in the course of family life that often precipitate family stress and can result in a family crisis. EX: Parenthood, midlife transitions, post-parenthood, retirement, and widowhood and widowerhood.
Fictive kin
Family-like relationships that are not based on blood or marriage but on close friendship ties.
Nadir of family disorganization
Low point of family disorganization when a family is going through a family crisis.
Period of family disorganization
That period in a family crisis, after the stressor event has occurred, during which family morale and organization slump and habitual roles and routines become nebulous.
Pile-up (stressor overload)
Concept from family stress and crisis theory that refers to the accumulation of family stressors and prior hardships.
Resilient families
Families that emphasize mutual acceptance, respect, and shared values; members rely on one another for emotional support.
Stressor
A precipitating event that causes a crisis; it is often a situation for which the family has had little or no preparation.
Vulnerable families
Families that have a low sense of common purpose, feel in little control over what happens to them, and tend to cope w/ problems by showing diminished respect and/or understanding for each other.
Allocation systems
The arrangements couples make for handling their income, wealth, and expenditures. Allocation systems may involve pooling partners' resources or keeping them separate. Who controls pooled resources is another dimension of an allocation system.
Child abuse
Overt acts of aggression against a child, such as beating or inflicting physical injury or excessive verbal derogation. Sexual abuse is a form of physical child abuse.
Child neglect
Failure to provide adequate physical or emotional care for a child.
Child-to-parent abuse
A form of family violence involving a child's (especially an adolescent's) physical & emotional abuse of a parent.
Coercive power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. This power is based on the dominant person's ability and willingness to punish the partner either w/ psychological-emotional or physical abuse or w/ more subtle methods of withholding affection. EX: Partner sulks, refuses to talk, and withholds sex; physical violence.
Common couple violence
Mutual violence between partners in conjunction w/ a specific argument.
Conflict Tactics Scale
A scale developed by sociologist Murray Straus to assess how couples handle conflict. Includes detailed items on various forms of physical violence.
Egalitarian norm (of marital power)
The norm (cultural rule) that husband and wife should have equal power in a marriage.
Emotional child abuse or neglect
A parent or other caregiver's being overly harsh and critical, failing to provide guidance, or being uninterested in a child's needs.
Equality
Power or resources divided between partners so that each has the same amount.
Equity
A standard for distribution of power or resources of partners according to the contribution each person has made to the unit. Another way of characterizing an equitable result is that it is "fair."
Expert power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. This power stems from the dominant person's superior judgment, knowledge, or ability. EX: Savings and investment decisions shaped by partner w/ more education or experience in financial matters.
Family preservation
A program of support for families in which children have been abused. The support is intended to enable the child to remain in the home safely rather than being placed in foster care.
Gender model of marriage
Couples want to construct conventional relationships and marriages in which they are comfortable. Compromise w/ an egalitarian ideal occurs "as spouses work together to construct appropriate gender identities & maintain viable marriages."
Incest
Sexual relations between closely related individuals.
Legitimate power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. Legitimate power stems from the more dominant individual's ability to claim authority, or the right to request compliance. EX: In traditional marriage, husband has the final authority as "head of household"; current ideal is that of equal partners.
Intimate partner power
Power in a relationship, whether of married or unmarried intimate partners.
Intimate partner violence
Violence against current or former spouses, cohabitants, or sexual or relationship partners.
Legitimate power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. Legitimate power stems from the more dominant individual's ability to claim authority, or the right to request compliance. EX: In traditional marriage, husband has the final authority as "head of household; current ideal is that of equal partners.
Marital power
Power exercised between spouses.
Marital rape
A husband's forcing a wife to submit to sexual contact that she does not want or that she finds offensive.
Mutually economically dependent spouses (MEDS)
Describes a dual-earner marriage in which each partners earns between 40 and 59 percent of the family income.
Near peer marriage (Schwartz's typology)
Couples who believe in partner equality but fall short of a 60/40 division of household labor, usually because of the need for the husband's higher earnings.
Neotraditional family
Families that value traditional gender roles and organize their family life in these terms as far as practicable. Formal male dominance is softened by an egalitarian spirit.
No-power
A situation in which partners are equally able to influence each other and, at the same time, are not concerned about their relative power vis-a-vis each other. No-power partners negotiate and compromise instead of trying to win.
Patriarchal norm (of marital power)
The norm (cultural rule) that the man should be dominant in a marital relationship.
Patriarchal terrorism
A man's systematic use of verbal or physical violence to gain or maintain control over his female partner.
Peer marriage (Schwartz's typology)
Couples who have a close-to-equal split of household chores and money management and who consider themselves to have equal status in the marriage or cohabiting union.
Power
The ability to exercise one's will. Personal power, or autonomy, is power exercised over oneself. Social power is the ability to exercise one's will over others.
Power politics
Power struggles between spouses in which each seeks to gain a power advantage over the other; the opposite of a no-power relationship.
Referent power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. In a marriage or relationship, this form of power is based on one partner's emotional identification w/ the other and his or her willingness to agree to the other's decisions or preferences. EX: Partner agrees to purchase of house or travel plans preferred by the other bc she or he wants to make partner happy.
Resource hypothesis
Hypothesis (originated by Robert Blood and Donald Wolfe) that the relative power between wives and husbands results from their relative resources as individuals.
Resources in cultural context
The effect of resources on marital power depends on the cultural context. In a traditional society, norms of patriarchal authority may override personal resources. In a fully egalitarian society, a norm of intimate partner and marital equality may override personal resources. It is in a transitional society that the resource hypothesis is most likely to shape marital power relations.
Reward power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. With regard to marriage or partner relationships, this power is based on an individual's ability to give material or nonmaterial gifts and favors to the partner. EX: Partner gives affection, attention, praise, and respect to partner, and assists him or her in realizing his or her goals; takes over unpleasant tasks; gives material gifts.
Sexual abuse
A form of child abuse that involves forced, tricked, or coerced sexual behavior--exposure, unwanted kissing, fondling of sexual organs, intercourse, rape, and incest--between a minor an older person.
Sibling violence
Family violence that takes place between siblings (brothers & sisters).
Traditionals (Schwartz's typology)
Marriages or domestic partnerships in which the man dominates all areas of decision making except children. He is the primary breadwinner and she is the primary homemaker, even if employed. In Schwartz's typology, both spouses favor this arrangement.
Transitional egalitarian situation (of martial power)
Marriages or domestic partnerships in which neither patriarchal nor egalitarian norms prevail. The couple negotiate relationship power, with the relative resources of each individual playing an important role in the outcome.
Barriers to divorce
Impediments to a decision to divorce, such as concern about children, religiously grounded objections to divorce, or financial concerns or dependencies.
Binuclear family
One family in two household units. A term created to describe a postdivorce family in which both parents remain involved and children are at home in both households.

Child support
Money paid by the non-custodial parent to the custodial parent to financially support children of a former marital, cohabiting, or sexual relationship.
Children's allowance
A type of child support that provides a government grant to all families--married or single-parent, regardless of income--based on the number of children they have.
Community divorce
Ruptures of relationships and changes in social networks that come about because of divorce.
Co-parents, co-parenting
Shared decision making and parental supervision in such areas as discipline and schoolwork or shared holidays and recreation. Can refer to parents working together in a marriage or other ongoing relationship or after divorce or separation.
Covenant marriage
A type of legal marriage in which the bride and groom agree to be bound by a marriage contract that will not let them get divorced as easily as is allowed under no-fault divorce laws.
Crude divorce rate
The number of divorces per 1,000 population.
Custodial parent
The parent who has legal responsibility for a child after parents divorce or separate. In sole custody, the child resides w/ the custodial parent. In joint custody, the child may reside primarily w/ one parent or may live part of the time w/ each.
Custody
Primary responsibility for making decisions about a child's upbringing and general welfare.
Divorce divide
The gap in divorce rates between college-educated and less-educated women. The divorce rate has declined substantially for college-educated women, but not for less-educated women.
Divorce-extended family
Kinship ties that form in the wake of a divorce. May include former in-laws, new spouses of one's ex-spouse, and that person's children and kin as part of one kinship system.
Divorce meditation
A nonadversarial means of dispute resolution by which the couple, with the assistance of a mediator or mediators (frequently a lawyer-therapist team), negotiate the terms of their settlement of custody, support, property, and visitation issues.
Economic divorce
The aspect of divorce that divides the couple into separate economic units, each w/ its own property, income, control of expenditures, and responsibility of taxes, debts, and so on.
Economic hardship perspective (on children's adjustment to divorce)
One of the theoretical perspectives concerning the negative outcomes among children of divorced parents. From this perspective, it is the economic hardship brought about by marital dissolution that is primarily responsible for problems faced by children.
Emotional divorce
Withdrawing bonding emotions and communication from the marital or other relationship, typically replacing these w/ alienating feelings and behaviors.
Family instability perspective (on children's adjustment to divorce)
The thesis that a negative impact of divorce on children is primarily caused by the number of changes in family structure, not by any particular family form. A stable single-parent family may be less harmful to children than a divorce followed by a single-parent family followed by a cohabitation, then remarriage, and perhaps a redivorce.
Guaranteed child support
Type of child support (provided in France and Sweden, for example) in which the government sends to the custodial parent the full amount of support awarded to the child and assumes responsibility for collecting what is owed by the noncustodial parent.
Income effect
Occurs when an increase in income contributes to the stability of a marriage by giving it a more adequate financial basis.
Income-to-needs ratio
An assessment of income as to the degree it meets the needs of the individual, family, or household.
Independence effect
Occurs when an increase in income leads to marital dissolution because the partners are better able to afford to live separately.
Instability hypothesis
The idea that the instability of postdivorce family structure(s) can be damaging to children. According to this hypothesis, a stable single-parent family might be better for a child than a single-parent family succeeded by a remarried family.
Interference w/ visitation
A legal term for actions of a custodial parent that hinder the noncustodial parent's scheduled visitation w/ a child. Such interference may consist of alleging (falsely) that the child is too ill to visit, has other plans, is not at home at the pick-up time, and the like. Some states have legislated penalties for interference w/ visitation, while others make little effort to enforce the noncustodial parent's right to contact w/ her or his child. Often allegations of interference w/ visitation are difficult to evaluate.
Intergenerational transmission of divorce risk
The tendency for children of divorced parents to have a greater propensity to divorce than children from intact families.
Interparental conflict perspective (on children's adjustment to divorce)
One of the theoretical perspectives concerning the negative outcomes among children of divorced parents. From the interparental conflict perspective, the conflict between parents before, during, and after the divorce is responsible for the lowered well-being of the children of divorce.
Joint custody
A situation in which both divorced parents continue to take equal responsibility for important decisions regarding their child's general upbringing.
Legal divorce
The dissolution of a marriage by the state through a court order terminating the marriage.
Levinger's model of divorce decisions: barriers, rewards, alternatives
This model, derived from exchange theory, presents a decision to divorce as involving a calculus of the barriers to divorce (e.g., concerns about children and finances; religious prohibitions), the rewards of the marriage, and alternatives to the marriage (e.g., can the divorced person anticipate a new relationship, career development, or a single life that will be more rewarding and less stressful than the marriage?).
Life stress perspective (on children's adjustment to divorce)
One of the theoretical perspectives concerning the negative outcomes among children of divorced parents. From the life stress perspective, divorce involves the same stress for children as for adults. Divorce is not one single event but a process of stressful events--moving, changing schools, and so on.
No-fault divorce
The legal situation in which a partner seeking a divorce no longer has to prove "fault" according to a state's legal definition but only needs to assert "irretrievable breakdown" or "irreconcilable differences." Sometimes termed unilateral divorce.
Parental adjustment perspective (on children's adjustment to divorce)
One of the theoretical perspectives concerning the negative outcomes among children of divorced parents. From the parental adjustment perspective, the parent's child-raising skills are impaired as a result of the divorce, with probable negative consequences for the children.
Parental loss perspective (on children's adjustment to divorce)
One of the theoretical perspectives concerning the negative outcomes among children of divorced parents. From the parental loss perspective, divorce involves the absence of a parent from the household, which deprives children of the optimal environment for their emotional, practical, and social support.
Psychic divorce
Regaining psychological autonomy after divorce; emotionally separating oneself from the personality and influence of the former spouse.
Redivorce
An emerging trend in U.S. society. Redivorces take place more rapidly than first divorces so that many who divorce (and their children) can expect several rapid and emotionally significant transitions in lifestyle and family unit.
Refined divorce rate
Number of divorces per 1,000 married women over age fifteen.
Relatives of divorce
Kinship ties established by marriage but retained after the marriage is dissolved--for example, the relationship of a former mother-in-law and daughter-in-law.
Selection hypothesis
The idea that many of the changes found in a dependent variable, which might be assumed to be associated w/ the independent variable, are really due to sample selection. For instance, the selection hypothesis posits that many of the benefits associated w/ marriage--for example, higher income and wealth, along w/ better health--are not necessarily due to the fact of being married but, rather, to the personal characteristics of those who choose--or are selected into--marriage. Similarly, the selection hypothesis posits that many of the characteristics associated w/ cohabitation result not from the practice of cohabiting itself but from the personal characteristics of those who choose to cohabit.
Spousal support
Economic support of a separate spouse or ex-spouse by the other spouse ordered by a court following separating or divorce.
Stress-related growth
Personal growth and maturity attained in the context of a stressful life experience such as divorce.
Unilateral divorce
A divorce can be obtained under the no-fault system by one partner even if the other partner objects. The term unilateral divorce emphasizes this feature of current divorce law.
Binuclear family
One family in two household units. A term created to describe a postdivorce family in which both parents remain involved and children are at home in both households.
Co-parenting
Shared decision making and parental supervision in such areas as discipline and schoolwork or shared holidays and recreation. Can refer to parents working together in a marriage or other ongoing relationship or after divorce or separation.
Cultural script
Set of socially prescribed and understood guidelines for relating to others or for defining role responsibilities and obligations.
Double remarriage
A remarriage in which both partners were previously married.
Extrusion
"[I]ndividuals' being 'pushed out' of their households earlier than normal for members of their cultural group, either because they are forced to leave or because remaining in their households is so stressful that they 'choose' to leave."
Hidden agenda
Associated w/ stepfathers who, w/ remarriage, join a single-parent family of a mother and her children. The former single-parent family may have a hidden agenda, or assumptions and expectations about how the stepfather will behave--expectations and assumptions that are often not passed on to the new stepfather.
Incomplete institution
Cherlin's description of a remarried family due to cultural ambiguity.
Nuclear-family model monopoly
The cultural assumption that the first-marriage family is the "real" model of family living, w/ all other family forms viewed as deficient.
Remarriages
Marriages in which at least one partner has already been divorced or widowed. Remarriages are becoming increasingly common for Americans.
Seven-stage model of stepfamily development
Model of stepfamily progression that proceeds through the following stages: fantasy, immersion, awareness, mobilization, action, contact, and resolution.
Single remarriage
A remarriage in which only one of the partners is previously married.
Stepmother trap
The conflict between two views: Society sentimentalizes the stepmother's role and expects her to be unnaturally loving toward her stepchildren but at the same time views her as a wicked witch.
Brenda and John have recently changed jobs, moved to a new neighborhood, and welcomed the birth of their third child. Using the definition provided in the text, it is safe to say that Brenda and John are experiencing:
family stress.
Which theoretical perspective views many causes of family stress as originating outside the family, such as in the family's neighborhood or workplace?
Family ecology
The text points out that something must happen to cause family stress or to precipitate a family crisis. That something is what social scientists call a:
stressor.
Bill and Joanne have been married for ten years and have two children. Recently, a number of family-related problems have occurred, causing Bill and Joanne to suffer from ________.
stressor overload
The text identifies three distinct phases of family crisis. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
a. The event that causes the crisis.
b. The high point of the crisis.
c. The reorganizing or recovery phase after the family reaches a low point.
d. The period of disorganization that follows the crisis.
b. The high point of the crisis.
In the ABC-X family crisis model, "A" is the:
stressor event.
From the ________ theoretical perspective, the way that a family defines, appraises, or interprets a crisis-precipitating event can, at times, have as much or more to do with members' ability to cope as with the character of the event itself.
interactionist
The Bradford family copes very well with stress, emphasizing mutual acceptance, respect, and shared values. Given this information, the Bradford family can be characterized as:
resilient.
Which of the following is NOT one of the factors mentioned in the text for meeting a crisis creatively?
a. formal social support
b. community resources
c. adaptability
d. a positive outlook
a. formal social support
The term crisis comes from the Greek for:
decision.
Personal power is also referred to as:
autonomy.
The text suggests six bases or sources of power. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
a. expert
b. coercive
c. reward
d. authoritative
d. authoritative
The text points out that it is only in the present ________ situation, in which neither patriarchal nor egalitarian norms are firmly entrenched, that marital power is negotiated by individual couples and the power of husbands and wives may be a consequence of their resources.
transitional egalitarian
Virtually all research indicates that women's satisfaction with ________ is strongly associated with women's relationship happiness, marital commitment, and depression and with the risk of marital disruption.
the fairness of their partners' contributions to household work
Family researcher Steven Nock views the future as one of ________ couples.
mutually economically dependent
One small study of twelve fairly equal newlywed couples found that some of them either consciously or unconsciously avoided issues about conjugal power and developed a(n):
"myth of equality."
Carlfred Broderick has offered an exercise to help people disengage from power struggles. Four options are presented for dealing with contentious issues without provoking a power struggle. Which of the following is NOT one of these options?
a. Do it yourself.
b. Make an offer your partner can't refuse.
c. Resign the crown.
d. Avoid being assertive.
d. Avoid being assertive.
The text observes that intimate partner murder rates have declined dramatically, especially for men. The drop in the male homicide victim rate is attributed to:
the greater availability of options for abused women.
The text observes that absent a reward power base for family power, some men resort to what is referred to as:
coercive power.
Which of the following is NOT categorized as child abuse by current American standards? a. kicking
b. whipping
c. hitting with a heavy object
d. hitting a child with a hair brush
d. hitting a child with a hair brush
A consequence of remarriage, which have higher divorce rates than first marriages, is an emerging trend of:
redivorce.
________ divorce laws, which exist in all fifty states, have eliminated legal concepts of guilt and are a symbolic representation of how our society now views divorce.
No-fault
The text points out that concern about a child's suffering from divorce, fear of losing the child, religious beliefs, and financial security are sometimes perceived by spouses as ________ divorce.
barriers to
Which of the following is NOT one of sociologist Paul Bohannan's "stations" of divorce?
a. emotional
b. sexual
c. psychic
d. legal
b. sexual
Most research presents a consistent picture of post-divorce ________ for women.
economic decline
Wallerstein and her colleagues followed their sample of children of divorce for ten years. In terms of the impact of divorce on these children ten years later and after, the overall impression left by their research is one of:
loss.
Sociologist Catherine Ross compared levels of psychological distress for men and women in four different categories. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
a. those who were dating
b. marrieds
c. cohabitors
d. those with multiple partners
d. those with multiple partners
On average, in comparison with their counterparts from stable households, adult children of divorced parents:
have weaker ties to their divorced parents.
Which of the following options requires spouses to prove fault or live apart for a certain length of time in order to obtain a divorce?
a. premarital counseling
b. covenant marriage
c. serial monogamy
d. divorce mediation
b. covenant marriage
Which of the following is NOT one of Melinda Blau's general guidelines for co-parents?
a. Communicate through your children.
b. Recognize and accept that change is inevitable and therefore can be anticipated.
c. Step out of traditional gender roles.
d. Know that co-parenting is forever.
a. Communicate through your children.
About 10 percent of households with children are ________; i.e., at least one child is the biological child of both parents, and at least one other child is the biological child of one parent and the stepchild of the other parent.
joint biological-step
The text characterizes the components of a "common remarriage courtship pattern." Which of the following is NOT one of these components?
a. Remarriage.
b. A brief period of full-time living together.
c. Male partner spends a few nights per week in the mother's household.
d. An adaptation period allowing for the adjustment of stepchildren.
d. An adaptation period allowing for the adjustment of stepchildren.
White and Booth found that marital quality does not vary greatly between first marriages and single or double remarriages; it is ________ that is generally affected.
satisfaction with family life
The text points to various differences between stepfamilies and first marriages with children. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
a. excessive family loyalty
b. different structural characteristics
c. a complicated "supra-family system"
d. preexisting parent-child coalitions
a. excessive family loyalty
Visitation rights (and corresponding support obligation) of stepparents:
are just beginning to be legally clarified.
From a(n) ________ perspective, the formation of stepfamilies should be discouraged.
biosocial
The text points out that the particular challenges that characterize remarriages often begin with the:
previous divorce.
Folktales like Snow White, Cinderella, and Hansel and Gretel reflect the view of stepmothers as:
cruel, vain, selfish, competitive, and even abusive.
The ________ is one of the first difficulties a stepfather encounters.
hidden agenda
Therapists agree that creating a supportive stepfamily takes time--from ________ years.
four to seven
What causes stress?
1) Distress
2) Eustress
Sources of family stress?
1) Money
2) Unemployment
3) Moving
4) Illness
Family stress can lead to _______ ______.
family crisis
Family crisis is considered . . .
a sharper jolt to family than ordinary family stress.
Crisis encompasses:
1) Family change
2) Turning point w/ the potential of positive and/or negative effects
3) Time of relative instability
Structural-functional:
Views family as social institution that performs essential functions of society; reinforces societal norms.
Family development, or life course:
Analyzes family transitions--predictable changes over time.
Family ecology:
Explores how a family influences & is influenced by surrounding environments (neighborhood, workplace, etc.).
Family systems:
1) Looks at the family as a system
a. Each component or part influences all the other parts.
b. A change in one member's role requires a change in the family system as well.

2) Family boundaries: how does your family decide who is in & who is out of the boundaries of the family?
Interactionist:
Views families as shaping family traditions & family members' self-concepts & identities.
Types of stressors:
1) Addition of a family member
2) Ambiguous loss--mentally ill, life support, Alzheimer's, etc.
3) Sudden unexpected change
4) Caring for a dependent, ill, or disabled family member
5) Demoralizing event (EX: arrest)
6) Loss of a family member
7) Ongoing family conflict
8) Daily family hassels
T/F: People consume more alcohol when they're stressed.
TRUE
Course of a family crisis:
1) Vulnerable vs. resilient
2) Period of disorganization
3) Nadir-low point of family disorganization
4) Recovery--likely to be more resilient
Forms of physical violence against women:
1) Situational couple violence (most common)
2) Intimate/patriarchal terrorism
Common myths about family violence:
1) Family violence is rare.
2) Alcohol & drug abuse are the real causes of violence in the home.
3) Battered wives like being hit, otherwise they'd leave.
4) Family violence is confined to the lower class.
5) Domestic violence isn't a problem in my community.
Barriers to Safety:
1) Love
2) Emotionally dependent
3) Commitment to the relationship
4) Religious pressure
5) Hope
6) View of violence as legit--seen in family of origin/batterer blames woman
7) Guilt
8) Fear (more violence if they try to leave)
9) Economic dependency
10) Isolation
The leading cause of death for girls & women (15-44) in GA?
Domestic violence
Georgia currently ranks _th in the country for its rate of female homicide.
7
GA '03-'06: __% of domestic violence primary homicide victims in GA were female. Out of the other _%, _% were same-sex partners & _% were female perpetrators.
96, 4, 2, 2
In '06, __% of reviewed cases were single-death incidents. In __% of the cases, others were also killed.
60, 40
__% of the cases were homicide/suicide events.
30
__% included the deaths of others, such as children (_%), family members, friends, or bystanders (someone in the workplace or on the street).
10, 6
Spousal abuse & battery are used for one purpose:
To gain & maintain total control over victim.
In addition to physical violence, abusers use the following tactics to exert power over their wives or partners:
1) Dominance
2) Humiliation
3) Isolation
4) Threats
5) Intimidation (EX: cleaning out the gun)
6) Denial & blame
Cycle of violence:
1) Tension building (EX: poor communication)
2) Explosion/acting out
3) The "honeymoon" (hardest stage to intervene)
Personality characteristics associated w/ abusive people:
1) Dependency
2) Jealousy
3) Control need
4) Anger & aggressiveness
Characteristics of abusers:
1) Blaming others for problems
2) Jekyll & Hyde personality
3) Isolation
4) Alcohol & other drug use
5) Emotional deficit
6) Unhappiness & dissatisfaction
7) Tend to have history of interpersonal aggressive behavior
Family factors characteristic of batterers:
Family history of abuse (EX: parents who abused each other, child abuse, family conflict, etc.).
BEST predictor of abuse:
Past abuse.
In Georgia, __% of homicide perpetrators were known to have threatened or attempted suicide prior to committing the homicide against their intimate partners.
37
__% either attempted or completed suicide at the scene or soon thereafter.
31
__% were known to have had a history or current problems w/ depression.
26
Explanations:
1) Social Learning Perspective
2) Frustration-Aggression Perspective
3) Social Exchange Theory
Social Learning Perspective: Cycle of Violence

Individuals learn behavior they will later exhibit by observing what others do & seeing the consequence of these actions (EX: Children in families w/ domestic violence present are more likely to act violently to wives & children).
Frustration-Aggression Perspective: Kick the Dog
1) Aggressive behavior occurs when a person's blocked from achieving goal; frustration may be displaced from goal to safer target--wife & children.
Where does the tendency to displace anger come from?
1) Partly biological--higher levels of testosterone
2) Learned behavior--stressors & frustration
Why is domestic violence more common among lower classes?
More stressors
Social Exchange:
People calculate whether to engage in a particular behavior by considering: 1) the rewards & costs of that behavior & 2) the rewards of alternatives to it.
Parental power:
Power between parents & children.
Marital power involves:
1) Decision making
2) Division of labor
3) Partners' sense of empowerment
4) Objective measures of power (EX: decision making, housework, control of finances)
5) Subjective measures of fairness
Six Bases of Power:
1) Coercive power
2) Reward power
3) Expert power
4) Informational power
5) Referent power
6) Legitimate power
Informational power
One of the six power bases, or sources of power. This power is based on the persuasive content of what the dominant person tells another individual. EX: Persuades other parent about most effective mode of child discipline, citing experts' books.
Resource hypothesis:
1) Spouse w/ more resources has more power in the marriage
2) Focuses on background characteristics & doesn't consider how partners interact
3) Explains marital power only when there's no overriding egalitarian or patriarchal norm
T/F: American marriages are egalitarian.
FALSE; They are no longer traditional.
Money-earning wives have more say in . . .
1) Important decisions
2) Division of household labor
Women's power in decision-making has _________, but not to a degree commensurate w/ the level of $ earned.
increased
Over __% of recent 1st marriages in the US are likely to end in divorce.
40
Timing of divorce:
1) Most likely to divorce in 1st 7yrs
2) Rates inc. in families w/ teenagers
3) Dec. again when children are 17 years or older
Reasons for stabilizing divorce rates?
1) Fewer people are marrying at a young age
2) Cohabitation inc.
3) More college-educated women (inc. economic stability)
4) Inc. standard of living & dec. tension at home
5) Inc. negotiating marriages based on less rigid gender roles
6) Determined children of divorce
Why are couples divorcing?
1) High expectations of marriage --> dissatisfaction if expectations aren't met
2) Emphasis on the emotional relationship over the institutional benefits (marriage isn't being viewed as permanent)
3) Dec. social, legal, and moral constraints
4) Economic factors (EX: loss of income inc. the risk of divorce)
Factors significantly associated w/ divorce:
1) Courting/dating < 2 yrs.
2) Age (under the age of 17)
3) Little in common
4) Differing in race, age, education, values, religion, libido, & social class
5) Religion (not being religiously devout/not regularly attending service)
6) Previously married
7) Remaining child-free or only female children
8) Limited education (economic impact)
9) Infidelity
10) Child of divorce--or never married
11) Poor communication
12) Poor conflict resolution skills
13) Husband unemployment
14) SES
15) A spouse experiencing depression, anxiety disorder, alcoholism/imprisonment, physical illness, etc.
16) Seriously ill child
17) Spouse w/ low self-esteem
18) African American
19) Stepchildren in the household
20) High debt
Spouses assess their marriage in terms of:
1) Rewards of the marriage
2) Alternatives to the marriage
3) Barriers to divorce (EX: children, religion or church attendance, lack of financial resources, if divorce will worsen economic condition, parenting concern, longer marriages, etc.)
6 Stations of Divorce:
1) Legal--the court officially brings the marriage to an end
2) Emotional--involves a loss of trust, respect, & affect for each other
3) Community--involves leaving 1 community of friends & relationships & entering another
4) Economic--women lose financially
5) Psychic
6) Co-parenting
Alimony:
Maintenance payments from ex-husband to ex-wife; few couples now agree to it & few judges order it.
B4 the 1970s, divorce seekers had to prove "grounds" for divorce:
1) Adultery
2) Mental cruelty
3) Desertion
Least accessible grandparent?
Father's father
T/F: All 50 states passed grandparent visitation laws.
TRUE
Post-divorce economic decline of women w/ children & kids experience declines in family income between __% & __%.
27, 51
Avg. mom SOL dec. __ in 1st year.
1/3
Legal custody:
Right to make important decisions about the children.
Physical custody:
Right to have kids live w/ parent.
Joint legal custody:
Both parents retain responsibility & decision-making about child.
Joint physical custody:
Child spends substantial time in both parent's households.
Parallel parenting:
Gravitate toward more detached style, both parents operating separately.
Why are policy makers making sure that child support payments are made?
Putting women & children in poverty (inc. gov. programs).
Crisis period:
Period during 1st year or 2 after separation.
After crisis period:
1) By two years post divorce, households had generally stabilized.
2) Most children resume normal development.
3) 5 years, 34% "coped well"; 29% were in a middle range of adequate functioning; 37% were not coping well.
4) 6 years 20-25% young adolescents displaying serious behavior problems.
Divorce & Children: The Wallerstein Research
1) Less $
2) Less college & $ from dad
Wallerstein Research: __% of the study children were likely to receive less education than their fathers. __% were likely to receive less than their mothers.
60, 45
Negative Effects of Divorce on Children:
1) Life stress--accumulation of stressors
2) Parental loss--assumes both parents in the same house is best for children (less supervision)
3) Parental adjustment--quality of parenting changes
4) Economic hardship--assumes the economic hardship caused is responsible for problems faced by children w/ divorced parents
5) Interparental conflict--conflict btwn parents is responsible for the lowered well-being of children of divorce
The family instability perspective stresses that . . .
transitions in & out of various family settings are the key to children's adjustment.
When divorcing parents continue to engage in conflict and especially when children are drawn into it, a child's adjustment is ______.
poorer
Interpersonal conflict tends to ________ w/ the passage of time.
diminish
Ten Keys to Successful Co-Parenting:
1) Heal yourself--so that you can get on w/ your life w/out leaning on your kids.
2) Act maturely--you and your coparent are the adults, with the responsibility to care for your kids and to act in their best interest.
3) Listen to your children; understand their needs.
4) Respect each other's competence as parents and love for the children.
5) Divide parenting time--so children feel they still have two parents.
6) Accept each other's differences.
7) Communicate about (and w/) the children directly, not through them.
8) Step out of traditional gender roles.
9) Recognize & accept that change is inevitable and therefore can be anticipated.
10) Know that co-parenting is forever; be prepared to handle holidays, birthdays, graduations, and other milestones.
About __ of marriages today are remarriages.
1/2
Remarriage is financially advantageous to . . .
divorced moms & their children.
Likely to remarry?
1) Sex: men more likely, especially after age 30
2) Children: the more kids, the less likely--especially for women
3) Age: older--less likely; double standard of aging
Remarriages are less ___________. They differ in age, educational background, and religion.


homogenous
What makes remarriages unique?
1) Deal w/ diff. everyday issues
2) Lack of institutionalized rules & roles
Is marital satisfaction different?
1) Little difference in happiness & quality.
2) Inc. tension & conflicts than 1st marriage.
3) Presence of stepchildren has an effect.
4) Social support & high expressiveness more important.
Remarriages more likely to end in divorce?
YES; 60% of remarriages and only 40-50% of 1st marriages.
Why are remarriages more likely to end in divorce?
1) Selection
2) More accepting of divorce
3) Presence of stepchildren
4) Unique stressors
5) Less social support (less in w/ in-laws)
6) Neg. perception of satisfaction and stability
Common areas of conflict in remarriages:
1) Stepchildren
2) Discipline
3) Distribution of resources
About __ of the women who remarry have kids in new marriage.
1/2
__ of Americans are now stepparents, stepchildren, stepsiblings, or living in a stepfamily.
1/3
T/F: More and more stepfamilies today result from cohabitation rather than from legal remarriage.
TRUE
The remarriage rate rose sharply during . . .
World War II, peaking as the war ended.
During the ____s, both the divorce rate & the remarriage rate declined and remained relatively low until the ____s, when they began to rise again.
1950, 1960
The remarriage rate peaked again in about ____ but has declined somewhat since then.
1972
Reason for the decline in remarriage rates:
1) Many divorced people who would have remarried in the past are now cohabiting.
2) Economic constraints & uncertainties discourage divorced men, who may already be paying child support, from assuming financial responsibility for a new family
About __ of women remarry w/in 10 years.
3/4
T/F: A majority of remarriages are second marriages.
TRUE; The vast majority of remarrieds have been divorced.
The average divorced person who remarries does so w/in _ years after divorce; __% do so within one year.
4, 30
Children under age 18 living w/ two parents, by their biological, step, and adoptive status:
1) 88% biological--children are living w/ both biological parents
2) 8% biological mother-stepfather--children are biological children of the mother and stepchildren of the father
3) 2% biological father-stepmother--children are biological children of the father & stepchildren of the mother
Gay or lesbian (GL) stepfamily
"Any GL couple in which at least one of the partners has at least one child from a prior marriage or partnership (heterosexual or homosexual)."
Remarriage is financially advantageous to . . .
divorced mothers & their children.
Older people, particularly those who are widowed, are likely to choose homogamous spouses. But this rule does not apply to middle-aged or younger people who choose remarriage partners. Why?
As prospective mates move from their late 20s into their 30s and 40s, they affiliate in occupational circles & interest groups that assemble people from more diverse backgrounds.
T/F: Remarrieds experience more tension & conflict than do first marrieds.
TRUE: Usually on issues related to stepchildren--discipline or distribution of resources to stepchildren.
__ of all marriages today are double remarriages.
1/5
Some stepparenting tips for preparing to live in step:
1) Plan ahead.
2) Examine your motives and those of your future spouse for marrying.
3) Discuss the modifications that will be required in bringing two families together.
4) Explore w/ your children the changes remarriage will bring.
5) Give your children ample opportunity to get to know your future spouse well.
6) Discuss the disposition of family finances w/ your future spouse.
7) Understand that there are bound to be periods of doubt, frustration, and resentment.
Some stepparenting tips for living in step:
1) Let your relationship w/ stepchildren develop gradually.
2) Don't try to replace a lost parent; be an additional parent.
3) Expect to deal w/ confusing feelings.
4) Recognize that you may be compared to the absent partner.
5) Discuss discipline and make sure the biological parent is the one carrying out the discipline of his or her child.
6) Understand that stepparents do not have the power or authority to "fix" their stepchildren of the family.
7) Acknowledge periods of cooperation among stepsiblings.
8) Admit that you need help if you need it.
Seven-stage model of stepfamily development:
1) Fantasy--adults expect a smooth and quick adjustment while children expect that the stepparent will disappear and their parents will be reunited.
2) Immersion--tension-producing conflict emerges between the stepfamiy's two biological "subunits."
3) Awareness--family members realize that their early fantasies are not becoming reality.
4) Mobilization--family members initiate efforts toward change.
5) Action--remarried adults decide to form a solid alliance, family boundaries are better clarified, and there is more positive stepparent-stepchildren interaction.
6) Contact--the stepparent becomes a significant adult family figure, and the couple assumes more control.
7) Resolution--the stepfamily achieves integration and appreciates its unique identity as a stepfamily.
The seven-stage model of stepfamily development has been condensed to four consecutive stages:
1) Fantasy
2) Confusion
3) Conflict
4) Comfort
Getting from fantasy to comfort takes time . . .
from four to seven years!
The eventual level of reorganization a family reaches depends on a number of factors:
1) Type of stressor
2) Degree of stress it imposes
3) Whether it is accompanied by other stressors
4) Family's appraisal or definition of the crisis situation
5) Family's available resources
Meeting crises creatively means . . .
resuming daily functioning at or above the level that existed before the crisis.
Several factors can help families meet family stress and/or crises more creatively:
1) Positive outlook
2) Spiritual values
3) Presence of support groups
4) High self-esteem
5) Open & supportive communication w/in the family
6) Adaptability
7) Counseling
8) Presence of a kin network
T/F: Intimate partner violence is primarily perpetrated by males.
FALSE; Researchers do not agree on whether intimate partner violence is primarily perpetrated by males or whether males & females are equally likely to abuse their partners.
Divorce rates ____ ______ in the 20th century, and divorce rates in the United States are now among the highest in the world.
rose sharply
Since around 1980, divorce rates have . . .
declined substantially.
T/F: Remarriages have always been fairly common in the United States.
TRUE; But are more frequent now than they were earlier in this century, and they follow divorce more often than widowhood.
One reason for relative remarital instability:
Lack of a cultural script for living in remarriages or stepfamilies.
Marital happiness and stability in remarried families are greater when the couple has . . .
1) Strong social support
2) High expressiveness
3) A positive attitude about the remarriage
4) Low role ambiguity
5) Little belief in negative stereotypes & myths about remarriages or stepfamilies
Violence between same-sex partners occurs at the ____ or _______ rate as in heterosexual relationships.
same, greater
Ten Keys to Successful Co-Parenting:
1) Heal yourself.
2) Act maturely.
3) Listen to your children; understand their needs.
4) Respect each other's competence as parents and love for the children.
5) Divide parenting time.
6) Accept each other's differences.
7) Communicate about (& w/) the children directly, not through them.
8) Step out of traditional gender roles.
9) Recognize & accept that change is inevitable & therefore can be anticipated.
10) Know that co-parenting is forever.