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99 Cards in this Set

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Chest or thorax
is the upper part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen.
3 Sections of the Chest
1. bony thorax
2. respiratory system proper
3. mediastinum
Name the Bony Thorax
are the anteriorly sternum, xiphoid process, 2 clavicles (collarbone), connecting the sternum to the 2 scapulae (shoulder blades), the 12 pairs of ribs circling the thorax and the 12 thoracic vertebrae posteriorly.
What are the 3 Parts of the Sternum (breastbone)
superior protion is the manubrium, the large center portion is the body and the smaller inferior portion is the ziphone process.
Name the Topographic Landmarks
1. Vertebra promines (C7)
2. Jugular notch (T9-T12)
3. Midthorax
4. Xiphoid tip
Name 4 General Division of the Respiratory System
1. Pharynx
2. Trachea
3. Bronchi
4. Lungs
Diaphragm
an important stucture of the respiraroty systeme w/c is a dome shape and the chief muscle of inspiration. Each half of the diaphragm is called hemidiaphragm.
Pharynx (upper airway)
aka throat. Also referred to as the upper airway or the upper respiratory tract, it that posterior area between the nose and mouth above and the larynx and the esophagus below. A passageway for both food and air.
Name the 3 Division of the Parynx
1. Nasopharynx
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx
Ovula
soft palate in the mouth
Epiglottis
Projects upward behind the tongue and acts a a lid for the slanted opening ot the larynx.
Thyroid Cartilage
Adam's apple
Esophagus
is the part of the digestive system that nonnects the pharynx with the stomach.
Larynx (Voice Box)
is a cagelike, cartilagenious structure approximately 1 1/2 to 2 inches (4-5cm) in length in an adult. Its anterior of the neck suspended from a small bone called the hyoid.
Hyoid
bone is found in the upper nect jus tbelow the tongue or floor of the mouth. Hyoid is not part of the larynx.
Cricoid Cartilage
is a ring of cartilage formin ghe inferior and posterior wall of the larynx. It is attached to the first rign of cartilage of the trachea
Trachea (Windpipe)
it is fiberous muscular tube about 3/4 inch (2 cm) in diameter and 4 1/2inc.(11 cm) long. Approximatele 20 C-shaped rings of cartilage are embedded in its walls. These rigid rings of cartilage re embedded in its walls. Located anterior to the esophagus C7-T4 or T5.
Thyroid Gland
is a vascular organ located anteriorly in the neck region just below the larynx with its right and left lateral lobes lying on each side and distal to the proximal trachea.
Parathyroid Gland
are small, rounded glands embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes os the thyroid gland.
Thymus Gland
is located distal to the thyroid gland.
Right Primary Bronchus
is wider and shorter than the left bronchus and also more vertical than the left bronchus. itis aobut 2.5 cm long & 1.3 cm diameter. The angle of divergence of tghe right bronchus is only 25 degrees. More likely for food to enter or lodge here.
Left Primary Bronchus
is smalled in ddiameter thatn the right but about twice as long (5cm). The divergent angle is approx. 37 degrees. Less likely for food to enter.
Carina
is a specific prominence, or dige of the lowest tracheal catilage as seen t the bottom nd inside portion of the trachea where it divides into right and leftbronchi. Carina is to the left of the midline and the right brochus appears more open that the left w/c clearley demonstrates why particles coming down the trachea are more like to enter the righ bronchus.. Level of T5.
Secondary Bronchi
Right bronchus devides into 3 secondary bronchi but the left divides into only 2 with each entering individual lobes of the lungs. Right lung contains 3 lobes and the left contains 2 lobes. W/c continues to subdivid into smaller branches called bronchioles that spread to all parts of each lobe. Each small terminal bronchioles terminates in very samll air sacs called alveoli. here oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the blood through the thin walls of the alveoli.
Lungs
is made up of 2 large ligh spongy lungs, located on each side of the thoracic cavity. Right lung is made up of 3 lobes, the superior (upper), middle and inferior (lower) lobes, divided by two deep fissures. Left lung has only 2 lobes, the superior (upper)and inferior (lower).
Parenchyma
elastic substance of the lung. This allow for the brething mechanism responsible for expansion and contractionof the lungs w/c brings oxygen in and removes the carbon dioxide from the blood through the this walls of the alveoli.
Pleura
each lung is contained in a in delicate double walled sac or memberance.
Parietal Pleura
outer layer of this plerals sac lines the inner surface of the chest wall and diaphragm
Pulmonary or Visceral Pleura
inner layer covering the surface surface of the lungs, also dipping into the fissures between the lobes
Pleural Cavity
the potential space between the double walled pleura w/c contains a lubricating fluid allowing movement of one or the other during breathing.
Pneumothorax
air or gas present in this pleural cavity w/c may cause the lungs to collapse
Hemothorax
accumulation of fluid int eh pleural cavity (pleural effusion)
Pericardial Sac
double walled w/c surrounds the herd
Parts of the Lungs
Apex
Carina
Base
Diaphragm
Costophrenic angle
Hilum (Hilus)
Mediastinum
the medial portion the thoracic cavity between the lung. Includes the 1. thymus gland, 2. heart and great vessels 3. trachea and 4. esophagus.
Thymus Gland
located behind the upper sternum. It said to be a temporary organ because it is very prominent in an infant and reaches it maximu size of about 40g at puberty then graduall disappear s in the adult. Its function is to resistance of diseases.
Pericardial Sac
doble walled sac enclosing the heart and the roots of the great vessels
Great Vessels
in the mediastinum are the inferior and superior vena cava, aorta, and larg epulmonary arterirs and veins
Superior Vena Cava
is a large vein that returns blood to the heard form the upper half of the body.
Inferior Vena Cava
is a large vein returning blood from th elower half of the body.
Aorta
is the largest artery in the body (1-2inch or 2cm in average adult) It carries blood to all parts of the body through its various branches.
Name the 3 Parts of Aorta
-Ascending Aorta (coming up out of the heart)
-Arch of the Aorta
-Descending Aorta w/c passes through the diaphragm into the abdomen where it becomes the abdominal aorta
Hypersthenic
paties has a thorax that is very broad and very deep from front to back but is shallow in vertical dimension
Asthenic
slender patient. In this build the thorax is narrow and width and shallow from front to back but is very long in vertical dimension.
Hyposthenic
average buildd
Atelectasis
Condition in which lung is collapsed
Bronchiectasis
irresible dilation of bronchioles
Bronchitis
acute or chronic irritation of bronchi
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Most common form is emphysema
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood
Cystic Fibrosis
one of the most common inherited diseases
Emppyeman
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
Pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
Pneumothorax
accumulation/trapped air in the pleural cavity
Pulmonary edema
congestive heart failure
Tuberculosis
contagious disease caused bby an airborne bacterium
Silicosis
a condition of pneumoconiosis
Hypertension
high blood pressure
Pleural Effusion
fluid in the pleural cavity
Apnea
absence of breath
Dyspnea
difficulty breathing
Reasons for Erect Chest X-ray
1. Minimize enlargement and distortion of heard and vessel
2. allows diphragm to move down further
3. show air fluid levels in ches.
What is the basic chest projection?
PA and LA
Pericardium
outer, dobule, loose-fitting covering of the heart
Myocardium
muscular covering of heart
Endocardium
lining within the heart
Embolism
moving blood clot
Thrombus
Stationry blood clot
Aorta
largest artery in the body
Vena Cava
largest vein
Density
the blackness of the film
Reasons for Erect Chest
1. Minimize enlargement & distortion of heard and vessel.
2. allows diaphragm to move down further
3. show air fluid levels in chest.
What are the basic chest projection?
PA & LA
Name the Bony Thorax
sternum
2 clavicles (collarbone)
3 scapula (shoulder blade)
12 pairs of ribs
12 thoracic vertebra
Name parts of the lungs
hilum/hilus
apex
base
costhoprenic angle
diaphragm, thymus gland
2 lobes left lung/3lobes right lung
Circulatory System
Heart, blood vessels and supporting structures
Name the four changers of the heart.
Right Atrium
Left Atrium
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
Routine Chest:PA&Left lateral
Inspiration
1. Diaphragm does down on inspiration
2. Greaters area of lungs are seen:
*72 inch (183cm FFD, SID,TFD)
to decreasemagnafication of the heart
*14x17 cassette for adults
*top of cassette 2"-3" above the shoulders (acromion processes)
*preferrably erect: diaphragm will descend lower
*shortest exposure time possible: to eliminate heart motion.
PA Chest X-ray
*chin up: to prevent superimposition on the apices
*shoulders forward: to prevent scapular superimposition on the lungs
*PA is takne insted of AP so the heart is not enlarged
*PA with inspiration and expiration to demonstrate excursion(movement) of the diaphragm
*posterior surface of the hnds on the hips
*CR at T-7 or inferior angle of the scapulae
*on the radiograph to check for rotation: spaces between the clavicles and the sternum must be equal or there is rotation
*good PA: must see 10 posterior ribs above the diaphragm.
Lateral Position
*arms up over the head
*to check for rotation on the lateral: posterior ribs should be superimposed to show no rotation
*right hemidiaphragm higher on the radiograph
A.P. Lordotic
*to see apices free from superimpostion with the clavicles

*patients leans back nd the CR goes through the chest at sternal angle

*also taken for interlobar effusions
Obliques
*normally 45 degrees rotation (sometimes LAO is taken at 60 degree rotation)

*an LAO shows the same anatomy as an RPO

*an RAO shows the same anatomy as an LPO

*shows the heart shadows
Decubitus
*taken to see the r-fluid levels

*patient lies on the fluid side

example: There is questionable fluid on the left side of the chest: Lt lateral decubitus is done

*patients lays on side (or any position) with the x-ray tube horizontal
An increase of exposure
fluid
asthma
added muscle
a decrease of exposure
air
How to change technique with a change in FFD
mAs - distance formula



*double distance (or half distance) 4 times mAs (or 1/4 the mAs)
Do chest supine VS. erect in the following cases:
Unconscious
Unable to stand,
Dizzy
Itis
inflamation
Cardio
heart
Carcino
cancerous
Pneumo
lung, air
Pathy
disease
suffering
feeling
Neuro
nerve
Topographic positioning landmark:
-Vertebra Prominens (C7)
-Jugular notch(deep notch by thyroid cartilage
-Midthorax T7
-Xiphoid tip
The lungs lobes are separated by:
fissures
Apex
upper tappered end of the lung
Base of the lungs
lower, expanded, concave part of the lung
Costophrenic Angle
lower, outer corner of the thoracic cavity where the diaphragm and the ribs meet
Respiration
process by which carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchange in the body

*physical act between the brain intercostal muscles and the diaphragm