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23 Cards in this Set

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What is organic chemistry?
study of carbon compounds
What is a hydrocarbon?
Compound that contains only carbon and Hydrogen.
What are the three groups of hydrocarbons?
alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
Describe characteristics of alkanes?
simplest group of hydrocarbons; contain only single bonds; can be continuous straight chanins or branched; compounds form a homologuus series....
1) CH4 6)C6H14
2) C2H6 7) C7H16
3) C3H8 8) C8H18
4) C4H10 9) C9H20
5) C5H12 10) C10H22
1) Methane 1C 6) Hexane
2) Ethane 2C 7) Heptane
3) Propane 3C 8) Octane
4) Butane 4C 9) Nonane
5) Pentane 5C 10) Decane
What do structural formulas do?
atoms. Give an example.
They show arrangement of atoms.
C2H6 ex. H H
I I
H-C---C-H
I I
H H
What are substituents?
An atom or group of atoms that take the place of a hydrogen in a hydrocarbon.
What do substituents include?
They include S,N, or an alkyl group. Note: An alkyl group is a hydrocarbon substituent. (use prefixes from above)
ex. H
I
H-C-H Methyl
What are the characteristics of an alkenes?
They have 1 or more carbon-carbon Double bonds
What are the characteristics of alkynes?
They have 1 or more triple bonds
How can hydrocarbons be grouped?
They can be grouped by the amount of hydrogen.
What does saturated hydrocarbon mean?
holding all hydrogens possible
What does unsaturated hydrocarbon mean?
B/C of double or triple bonds it is not holding all the hydrogens possible
What are the properties of alkanes?
are nonpolar molecules, intermolecular forces are weak, low weight hydrocarbons tend to be gases or liquids with low boiling points, some alkanes have the same molecular formula but differnet strctural formulas-isomers
C4H10
H H H H H
I I I I I
H-C-C-C-C-H H-C-H
I I I I I I I
H H H H H-C-C-C-H
I I I
Butane H H H

2-Methyl Propane

Isomers will have differnet properties,
In general, the more branced the isomer is, the lower its boiling point.
Structures can rotate B/C of single bonds.
U
Describe properties of alkenes and alkynes.
Unsaturated compoinds, no rotation occurs B/C of multiple bonds, alkynes are not plentiful in nature. The simplest alkyne is acetylene H-C=C-H, forces of attraction are weak, double + triple bonds cause increase in boiling pts., they are straight or branched compounds with no ring structure or Aliphatic compounds.
What are cyclic + aromatic hydrocarbons?
Note: in some hydrocarbons, the two ends of a carbon chain are attached to form a ring.
Are compounds that contain a hydrocarbon ring. Rings containg 3-20 carbons are found in nature with 6+7 membered rings the most common.
What are Arenes?
They are unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons. They contain single rings or groups of rings. They were originally called aromatic compounds b/c they had pleasant odors.
Give an example of an arene.
Benzene (Note: when nameing these compounds use the word cyclo....ex. cyclo hexane.
What are fossil fuels?
Organic matter derived from the decay of organisms from long ago. They contain mostly aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Much of the world's need for energy is supplied by what?
burning fossil fuels
Natural gas is an important source of what? give examples...
alkanes of low molecular mass.
examples are methane, ethane and others
What is cracking?
a controlled process by which hydrocarbons are broken down or rearranged into smaller more useful molecules. Catalyst are used in this process.
Describe organic compounds in petroleum.
They are more complex. Most of them are branched + continuous chain alkanes. Crude oil is refined by distilling it to divide it into fractions according to boiling points. These fractions are then cracked.