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34 Cards in this Set

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The Greek Philosopher Democritus and his followers
believed that everything was made of solid particles called atoms, too smallto see.
Plato and Aristotle
They believed that everything was made of just a few elements: earth, air, fire, and water, mixed in different quantities.
The alchemist
also believed that everything was also made of just a few elements:mercury, sulphur and salt. They believed you could turn a 'base' metal such as lead into gold by adding the right amount of mercury.
Element
is any substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances
Atom
the smallest part of an element
Brownian Motion
is an experiment that shows the existance of particles. You might see brownian motion in a smoke box.
Dissolves
to break up or disperse
Diffusion
Is the spreading out of one substance throughout another and it is caused by the movement of molecules.
molecules
A group of two or more atoms linked together by sharing electrons in a chemical bond.
ions
An atom or a group of atoms that has an electric charge. Positive ions are formed by the loss of electrons; negative ions are formed by the gain of electrons.
scanning electron microscope
a device in which the specimen is examined point by point directly in a moving electron beam, and electrons reflected by the specimen are used to form a magnefied, three dimensional image on a television screen.
Solid
has a definite shape and a definite volume
Liquid
It has a definite volume but no definite shape. Its shape depends on the container
Gas
Has niether a definite volume nor definite shape. It completely fills its container.
Melting
to change from a solid to a liquid.
Evaporation
The change of a liquid into a vapor at a temperature below the boiling point. Evaporation takes place at the surface of a liquid, where molecules with the highest kinetic energy are able to escape. When this happens, the average kinetic energy of the liquid is lowered, and its temperature decreases.
Boiling
having reached the boiling point; steaming or bubbling up under the action of heat
Sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
Condensing
to go from a gas to a liquid
Solution
what you make when you dissolve the solute in the solvent
Suspension
an insoluble solid(powder) which is finely dispersed within a liquid.
Aqueous Solution
when water is the solvent
Sediment
the matter that settles to the bottem of a liquid
Solute
the stuff you are dissolving
Solvent
The liquid you use to dissolve something in
Insoluble
If a solute does not dissolve in a solvent
Soluble
If a solute dissolves in a solvent
Immiscible
One liquid dissolving in another
Miscible
Capable of being mixed
Saturated Solution
is one that can be dissolved no more at that temperature
Solubility
The solubility of a solute in water, at a given temperature, is the maximum amount of it that will dissolve in 100 grams of water at that temperature
Residue
what is left after filtering
Filtering
seperation by filtering the suspension through filter paper
Centrifuging
to seperate small amounts of suspension. test tubes of suspension are spun round very fast, so that the solid gets flung to the bottom