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25 Cards in this Set

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soluble
Describes a substance that can be dissolved in a given solvent.
insoluble
A substance that does not dissolve in a solvent.
immiscible
Two liquids that can be mixed together, but seperate shortly after you stop mixing them.
miscible
Two liquids that are souble in each other.
solvation
The process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution.
heat of solution
The overall energy change that occurs during the solution formation process.
solubility
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature and pressure.
saturated solution
A solution containing the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
unsaturated solution
A solution contaning less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution.
supersaturated solution
A solution containing more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature.
Henry's law
States that at a given temperature, the solubillity (s) of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure (p) of the gas above the liquid.

(s_1) / (p_1) = (s_2) / (p_2)
OR:
(s_1)(p_2) = (p_1)(s_2)
concentration
A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution.
molarity (M)
The number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.

M = (moles of solute) / (liters of solution)
OR:
(M_1)(V_1) = (M_2)(V_2)
molality (m)
The ratio of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent.

m = (moles of solute) / (kilogram of solvent)
mole fraction
The ratio of the number of moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent.

(x_a) = (n_a) / [(n_a) + (n_b)]
(x_b) = (n_b) / [(n_a) + (n_b)]
(n_a) = # of moles of solvent; (n_b) = # of moles of solute
colligative properties
The physical properties of solutions that are affected by the number of, but not the identity of, dissolved solute particles.
vapor pressure lowering
The lowering of the vapor pressure of a solvent by the addition of a nonvolatile solute to the solvent.
boiling point elevation
The temperature difference between a solution's boiling point and a pure solvent's boiling point.

Δ(T_b) = (k_b)(m)
freezing point depression
The difference in temperature between a solution's freezing point and the freezing point of a pure solvent.

Δ(T_f) = (k_f)(m)
osmosis
The diffusion of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration.
osmotic pressure
The amount of additional pressure caused by the water molecules that moved into the solution through osmosis.
suspension
A mixture containing particles that settle out if left undisturbed.
colloid
A heterogeneous mixture of intermediate-sized particles.
Brownian motion
An erratic movement of colloid particles.
Tyndall effect
The scattering of light by colloidal particles.