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20 Cards in this Set

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Describe the basic concept of a chemical reaction
In a chemical reaction, chemical bonds between atoms in reactants (starting materials) are broken and new bonds are formed in different combinations to form new compounds (the products).
Identify and briefly describe a Decomposition Reaction
Breaks larger compounds into smaller ones. One substance becomes two.
Catabolism. Breakdown of nutrients to provide energy.
AB > A + B
2CuO > 2Cu + O2
2H2O > 2H2 + O2
Identify and briefly describe a Combination Reaction
Makes larger compounds from smaller ones. Two substances form one substance.
Anabolism. Synthesis of structural components of cells and tissues
A + B > [AB]
N2 + 3H2 > 2[NH3]
Ca + S > [CaS]
Identify and briefly describe a Single Replacement Reaction
An atom or molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms from a compound. Always two reactants and two products. An element and a compound are reactants and an element and a compound are products.
A + BC > B + AC
Fe + CuSO4 > Cu + FeSO4
F2 + 2NaCl > Cl2 + 2NaF
Identify and briefly describe a Double Replacement Reaction
Two substances exchange parts with another and form two different substances. Partner switching.
AB + CD > AC + BD
AgNO3 + NaCl > AgCl + NaNO3 (Silver switches with Sodium)
Identify and briefly describe a Combustion Reaction
Reaction between a substance and oxygen that proceeds with the production of light and heat. Breakdown of a hydrocarbon to carbon dioxide in water.
2C2H2 + 5O2 > 4CO2 + 2H2O
Explain the concept of redox reactions
A reaction in which there is a transfer of electrons from one reactant to another reactant; oxidation and reduction.
Define the term Oxidation
The loss of electrons; the gain of oxygen atoms and/or the loss of hydrogen atoms.
Define the term Reduction
The gain of electrons; the loss of oxygen atoms and/or the gain of hydrogen atoms.
Define the term Oxidizing agent
A reactant that causes oxidation of another reactant by accepting electrons from it.
Define the term Reducing agent
A reactant that causes reduction of another reactant by providing electrons
Define the term Exothermic reaction
Reactions which give off heat are exothermic.
Define the term Endothermic reaction
Reactions taking in heat are endothermic.
Define the term Exergonic reaction
An exergonic reaction is one which generates energy = Exothermic Reaction
Define the term Endergonic reaction
An endergonic reaction is one which requires energy = Endothermic Reaction
Define the term Balance chemical equations
In a balanced chemical equation there must be the same number of atoms of each element on both sides and the same mass on each side.
Identify the substance that is oxidized, the substance that is reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.

Al(s) + Fe3+(aq) > Al3+(aq) + Fe(s)
Al (s) loses three electrons and becomes Al3+;
Aluminium is oxidised.
Fe3+ gains three electrons and becomes Fe.
Iron is reduced.
Al is the reducing agent. Fe is the oxidising agent.
Identify the substance that is oxidized, the substance that is reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.

CH3OH(g) + O2(g) > HCOOH(g) + H2O(g)
In converting CH3OH to HCOOH, CH3OH both gains oxygens and loses hydrogens; it is oxidised.
In converting O2 to H2O, O2 gains hydrogens; it is reduced.
CH3OH is the reducing agent. O2 is the oxidising agent.
Identify the substance that is oxidized, the substance that is reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.

Ni2+(aq) + Cr(s) > Ni(s) + Cr2+(aq)
Ni gains two electrons and becomes Ni.
Nickel is reduced.
Cr loses two electrons and becomes Cr2+.
Chromium is oxidised.
Nickel is the oxidising agent. Chromium is the reducing agent.
Identify the substance that is oxidized, the substance that is reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.

CH2O(g) + H2(g) > CH3OH(g)
CH2O gains hydrogen so is reduced.
H2 gains oxygens in being converted to CH3OH and so is oxidised.
CH2O is the oxidising agent. H2 is the reducing agent.