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278 Cards in this Set

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What two characteristics does matter have?
It has mass and takes up space.
Describe a solid.
It has a fixed shape and volume.
Describe a liquid.
It has a definite volume but takes the shape of its container.
Describe a gas.
It has no fixed volume or shape and takes the shape and volume of its container.
What does microscopic mean?
It's matter you can see.
What does micropscopic mean?
Matter you can only see with a tool (bacteria).
What is particulant matter?
Really tiny matter like atoms, electrons, protons (particles).
What are the physical properties?
Odor, color, colume, state, density, melting point, boiling point, soft or hard, conducts electricity, viscocity (resistance to flow), dissolve.
What are the chemical properties?
Rusting, what things react with, burn, combust, exhaust, cook, corrode.
What does matter require to undergo chemical and physical properties?
Energy.
What is the Symbol for Lithium?
Li
What is the symbol for Beryllium?
Be
What is the symbol for Boron?
B
What is the symbol for fluorine?
F
What is the symbol for Sodium?
Na
What is the symbol for Magnesium?
Mg
What is the symbol for silicon?
Si
What is the symbol for Phosphorus?
P
What is the symbol for sulfur?
S
What is the symbol for Argon?
Ar
What is the symbol for Potassium?
K
What is the symbol for Chromium?
Cr
What is the symbol for Manganese?
Mn
What is the symbol for Iron?
Fe
What is the symbol for Cobalt?
Co
What is the symbol for Copper?
Cu
What is the symbol for Gallium?
Ga
What is the symbol for Germanium?
Ge
What is the symbol for Arsenic?
As
What is the symbol for Selenium?
Se
What is the symbol for Krypton?
Kr
What is the symbol for Rubidium?
Rb
What is the symbol for Strontium?
Sr
What is the symbol for Molybdenum?
Mo
What is the symbol for Silver
Ag
What is the symbol for Tin
Sn
What is the symbol for Tellurium?
Te
What is the symbol for Cesium
Cs
What is the symbol for Gold?
Au
What is the symbol for Mercury?
Hg
What is the symbol for Lead?
Pb
What is the symbol for Radon?
Rn
What is a molecule?
It is composed only of nonmetal elements. It's the smallest unit that can exist in that compound.
What is a formula unit?
It is composed of a metal and a nonmetal (salt). It is the smallest unit of a very complex crystal.
What are the diatomic molecules?
Br, I, N, Cl, H, O, F
What are the polyatomic molecules?
S (8), P (4)
What does the Law of Definite Composition state?
Any compound is always made up of elements in the same proportion by mass.
What are mixtures?
They contain more than one pure substance and their composition can vary. Ex: coffee, brass, steel, tap water.
What is a homogeneous mixture?
A solution. It is the same throughout. Ex: salt water, coffee with cream, air (unpolluted), brass.
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
They have regions that have different properties from those of the other regions. Ex: sand and water, oil and water, curdles milk.
How do compounds separate?
By chemical means.
How do mixtures separate and name the methods.
By physical means. Distillation (by boiling points), Filtration (by porous material), Sublimation (substances that go from solid to gas when heat energy is added), Dissolving, Magnet
What is the symbol for Tin
Sn
What is the symbol for Tellurium?
Te
What is the symbol for Cesium
Ce
What is the symbol for Gold?
Au
What is the symbol for Mercury?
Hg
What is the symbol for Lead?
Pb
What is the symbol for Radon?
Rn
What is a molecule?
It is composed only of nonmetal elements. It's the smallest unit that can exist in that compound.
What is a formula unit?
It is composed of a metal and a nonmetal (salt). It is the smallest unit of a very complex crystal.
What are the diatomic molecules?
Br, I, N, Cl, H, O, F
What are the polyatomic molecules?
S (8), P (4)
What does the Law of Definite Composition state?
Any compound is always made up of elements in the same proportion by mass.
What are mixtures?
They contain more than one pure substance and their composition can vary. Ex: coffee, brass, steel, tap water.
What is a homogeneous mixture?
A solution. It is the same throughout. Ex: salt water, coffee with cream, air (unpolluted), brass.
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
They have regions that have different properties from those of the other regions. Ex: sand and water, oil and water, curdles milk.
Observations can be in two different categories:
qualitative or quantitative (measurement)
Measurement will always consist of two parts:
a number and a unit
When is a zero significant?
when the number has both a decimal and a whole number to the left of the zero
When you multiply or divide, what is the rule with significant figures?
The number with the least number of significant figures determines how many the answer will have.
Whne you add or subtract, what is the fule with significant figures?
Significant figures are determined by the number with the least decimal places.
Put the prefixes from highest to lowest.
mega-6, kilo-3, deci:-1, centi:-2, milli:-3, micro:-6, nano:-9
What is the exponent for parts per million?
6
What is the exponent for part per billion?
9
What is the formula for density?
D=m/v
How do you convert to Kelvin?
k=C+273
What is the formula for pressure?
pressure=force/area
What is standard pressure?
1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
What is Charles's Law?
v/t=k, so v1/t1=v2/t2 always in kelvin
What is Boyle's Law?
pv=k, so p1v1=p2v2
What is the Combined Gas Law?
p1v1/t1=p2v2/t2 always in kelvin
What does the Law of Multiple Proportions state?
Compounds have the same ratio of those atoms always.
What kind of bonds do molecules have?
covalent
What is a covalent bond?
Share electrons.
What are homoatomic molecules?
Molecules that have the same atoms bonded together.
What are heteroatomic molecules?
Molecules that have different atoms bonded together like water.
What are ionic compounds?
A group of two or more atoms that function as a unit (salt).
What is an ionic bond?
Electrostatic attraction between ions
What charge is associated with Cathode rays?
negative
What was learned by the Cathode experiments?
1. Cathode rays travel in a straight line. 2. They have a negative charge. 3. They have mass. Cathode rays were given the name electrons.
What charge is associated with canal rays?
positive
Who discovered that the positive charge was concentrated in the center of the atom?
Ernest Rutherford
What experiment did Ernest Rutherford use?
Gold foil experiment; Found that the atom was mostly empty space with a very dense that holds positive charge and contains nearly the entier atom's mass.
What is the smallest particle?
electron
Where is the majority of the mass of an atom located?
nucleus
What is an isotope?
atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is a cation?
It loses electrons and has a positive charge.
What is an anion?
It gains electrons and has a negative charge.
What are allotropes?
elements that exist in more than one molecular form
What are the simplest molecules?
Diatomic molecules
What are the prefixes for numbers 1 to 10 for naming molecules?
1-mono 2-di 3-tri 4-tetra 5-penta 6-hexa 7-hepta 8-octa 9-nona 10-deca
How do you name formula units?
Since they are held together by ionic bonds, you take the name of the cation and add -ide to the anion.
What are the columns in the periodic table?
groups-similar chemical properties
What are the rows in the periodic table?
periods-share the same principle energy levels
What is the name for group IA?
alkali metals
What are the most active metals?
alkali metals
What is the name for group IIA?
alkaline earth metals
What is the name for group VIIA?
halogens
What are the most active nonmetals?
halogens
What is the name for group VIIIA?
noble gases
How do you know which elements are more reactive/violent?
As you go down the column, it becomes more reactive/violent.
Where are the metalloids found?
along the stair-step line
What are the two elements that are liquid in their elemental form?
Br and Hg
Which particle has very little mass?
electron
What determines the shape and size of the atom?
electron
What is electromagnetic radiation?
waves of energy, which are comprised of electric and magnetic fields that vary respectively.
Shorter wavelengths have higher or lower frequencies?
higher
What is the order of rays by increasing wavelenth?
gamma, x-rays, UV, visible, ifrared, microwave, radio
What is the formula for energy of a photon?
E=hc/wavelength
What is quantum mechanics?
the study of the location of electrons
How do you determine the shell capacity for an energy level?
2n^2
What is the shape of the s orbital?
spherical
What is the shape of the p orbital?
figure 8
What is the shape of the d orbital?
cloverleaf
How many orbitals does the s,p,d,f have?
s-1 p-3 d-5 f-7
What is the Aufbau principle?
Electrons will usually occupy the lowest energy subshells that are available.
What is Hund's rule?
when electrons fill orbitals, they add one electron to each orbital before they begin to pair in an orbital.
What is the special rule for the electron configuration for transition metals?
Their valence electrons are in the d-orbitals.
What is the electron configuration for Chromium
Cr-[Ar]4s1 3d5
What is the electron configuration for Molybdenum?
Mo-[Kr]5s1 4d5
What is the electron configuration for Copper?
Cu-[Ar]4s1 3d10
What is the electron configuration for Silver?
Ag-[Kr]5s1 4d10
What are the physical properties of metals?
Efficient conductors, malleability (hammered into thin sheets), ductibility (can be pulled into wires), lustrous (shiny) appearance
How does metallic character increase on the periodic table?
right to left and top to bottom.
How does size increase on the periodic table?
right to left and top to bottom
How does electronegativity increase on the periodic table?
left to right and bottom to top
What element has the most electronegativity?
Fluorine
What is electronegativity?
the ability of an atom's positive nucleus to pull electrons in a chemical bond.
What do chemical bonds involve?
electrons
What are the two types of chemical bonds?
ionic and covalent
What is a covalent bond?
Share electrons. Electrons are attracted to the nucleus of the opposing atoms
What is the octet rule?
Atoms will share, gain, or lose electrons in order to produce a noble gas electron configuration.
Which elements always follow the octet rule?
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine
What are resonance structures?
delocalized electrons determind by bond strength.
What is the predicted bond angle and shape of a molecule with 2 regions of high electron density?
180 and linear
What is the predicted bond angle and shape of a molecule with 3 regions of high electron density?
120 and trigonal
What is the predicted bond angle and shape of a molecule with 4 regions of high electron density?
109.5 and tetrahedral
What is the hybridization for 2,3, and 4 regions of high electron density
sp sp1 and sp2 respectively
If there are 4 RHED and 2 lone pairs what is the molecular geometry?
angular (bent)
If there are 4 RHED and 1 lone pair what is the molecular geometry?
pyramidal
If a molecule has lone pairs is it polar or nonpolar?
polar
How many units are in a mole?
6.02 x 10^23
What does it mean to find the formula mass
atomic mass unit (amu)
Why is the mole important?
It tells how many units until it is large enough to see and handle
What are the 3 parts of a chemical equation?
reactants/products, states abbreviations, and balanced
What is the formula for % yield?
experimental yield/theoretical yield
What is the precentage of the components in the air?
21% oxygen 78% nitrogen .9% argon
What are the four major gases that contribute to air pollution?
carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfer dioxide, and nitrogen oxides
What two factors are associated with risk assessment?
toxicity and exposure
What are the 3 layers of the atmosphere?
mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposhpere
What layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone?
stratosphere
As altitude increases, what happens to air pressure?
decreases
What does it mean that ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent?
It is a compound that steals electrons from other elements.
What does ozone do in the troposphere
It may contribute to global warming. It is capable of absorbing infrared radiation and reemitting that energy in the form of heat back to the earth's surface.
Why is ozone important in the upper atmosphere?
It absorbs harmful radiation from the sun.
What region of radiation energy is most harmful to plants and animals?
UV
How can absorbing photons from radiant energy damage the biological makeup of plants and animals?
When atoms absorb the high energy electron, electrons become excited and move into higher energy levels. With UV, it becomes so energetic that electrons are expelled and it becomes positively charged.
Why does ozone increase in the trophosphere?
pollution
How is ozone formed in the stratosphere?
electrical energy or chapman cycle: oxygen molecules react with UV radiation which splits the oxygen atoms. Those atoms combine with other oxygen atoms to form ozone. It is then decomposed back into o2 and o.
Describe UV-A radiation.
It is the least energetic, least damaging, and reaches the earth's surface in great amounts, may be the cause of wrinkling and premature skin aging, may cause skin tumors
Describe UV-B radiation.
mostly absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere, can cause DNA damage, lower effectiveness of immune system, associated with eye damage, cataracts, sking cancer, and skin tumors.
Describe UV-C radiation.
Most energetic, most damaging, but not a problem because totally absorbed by oxygen and ozone in stratosphere.
Where is ozone more concentrated in the world?
North and South Poles
What is a free radical?
very unstable chemical substance that has an unpaired electron orbital; very reactive
How do free radicals contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer?
They will react with ozone to produce diatomic oxygen.
What are cholorofluorocarbons?
nonflammable, nontoxic compounds that are superb solvents, excellent coolants; contribute to the depletion of the ozone
How much warmer is the earth than expected?
33 degrees C
Why is the earth warmer than expected?
greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide and water absorbing heat radiation
Why has CO2 decreased?
development of life (photosynthesis and dissolved in oceans to become part of the rocks to form limestone)
What evidence supporting temperature decrease and CO2 increase has been found?
microorganisms in the ocean's floor and analyzing ice cores (H1 lighter than H2) isotopic water vapor increases with increasing temperature and ice bubbles
What is the Global Greenhouse Effect?
84% of radiant energy is returned from the surface of the earth
What is the Enhance Greenhouse Effect?
more than 84% of radiant energy is returned to Earth.
What are the greenhouse gases?
CO2 water CH4 N2O ozone and CFCs
What happens when we burn fossil fuels?
CO2 content in the atmosphere gradually increases.
What type of radiation do greenhouse gases absorb?
infrared-low energy
What happens with low energy absorption in a molecule?
It vibrates.
Is more energy required to bend or stretch a molecule?
stretch
What happens when a molecule absorbs microwaves?
It rotates.
What is the carbon cycle?
decaying plants, exhalation of CO2 by animals, limestone decomposes, volcanoes release CO2
Combustion of fossil fuels increases or decreases CO2?
increases
How does CO2 relate to tropical deforestation?
It removes an important resource for removing CO2 from the air.
What are CO2 sinks?
Storage in atmosphere, uptake by the ocean, forest regrowth, fertilization, climatic effects
How do we know that the increase of CO2 is a result of burning fossil fuels?
High levels of atmospheric CO2 have less C14 meaning they came from fossil fuels.
The intensity of the Sun's radiation is affected by what factors?
sunspot activity, winds, cloud cover, volcanic activity, pollutants, aerosols, glacier shifts, human activity (suns w/ cloud volcanic pollutants are glad humans)
What are the estimates in probablility?
virtually certain-99% very likely:90-99% likely: 66-90% medium:33-66% unlikely 10-33% very unlikely:1-10%
What is the formula for work?
force x distance
What is enthalpy?
heat content or H
How is heat and volume related?
It takes more heat energy to raise the temperature of a container with more volume.
What is the relationship of joules and calories
1 cal=4.184 J
How do you find the amount of energy required to reaise the temperature of a substance?
q=(mass)(c)(change in temperature) answer in joules
What is heat of fusion?
amount of heat required to melt a substance
What is the heat of crystallization?
amound of heat required to solidify a substance
What is the heat of condensation?
amount of heat require to change from a gas to a liquid
Does it require more energy to vaporize or melt water?
vaporize
What is an endothermic reaction?
Energy is added to a substance. Ex: melting or boiling. Absorbs heat energy. positive delta H. Total energy of products are higher than the energy of the reactants.
What is an exothermic reaction?
Energy is removed from a substance. Ex: condensing or freezing. neg. delta H. Total energy of the products is lower than the energy of the reactants. It gives off heat into its surroundings. Heat of the reaction is <0.
Where do systems tend to move toward?
Systems tend to a state of minimum potential energy and maximum disorder.
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
The total amount of energy in the universe is constant.
What do combustion reactions form?
carbon dioxide and water vapor
What does a calorimeter do?
It measures the change in temperature
What is always required to break a bond?
an absorption of energy (so always positive)
What is bond energy?
the amount of heat energy that must be absorbed to break a chemical bond.
What is activation energy?
the kinetic energy that reactant molecules need in order to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur.
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
In spontatneous changes the universe tends towards a state of greater disorder.
What two requirements are needed for a spontaneous reaction?
free energy change of the system must be negative and entropy (disorder) of the universe must increase
What does it mean to have a positive delta S and negative delta S
When delta S>0=disorder increases. When delta S<0=disorder decreases.
Does heating increase or decrease disorder?
Increases.
Does spreading the molecules of a substance into additional locations increase or decrease disorder?
Increases.
Does an exothermic or negative delta H ensure spontaneity?
No.
What is the criterion for spontaneity?
An increase in total entropy, not a decrease in the energy of the system.
What are the only conditions in which a process cannot be spontaneous?
+delta H and -delta S
What is a catalyst?
substances that lower the activation energy and increase the rate of a reaction. They create a new reaction path with a lower activation barrier.
What are biological catalysts?
enzymes
What are the different grades of coal categorized by?
heat content
What is coal mostly made of?
carbon
Which coal substances do not generate as much heat content per gram?
higher contents of oxygen (lower grades)
Although coal is plentiful, what is the downside?
It is expensive and dangerous to extract and gives off dangerous pollutants.
What are the advantages of petroleum?
It's a liquid, transported through pipelines, more concentrated and more energy per gram
What is the disadvantage of petroleum?
there is a shortage.
What is crude oil?
mostly hydrocarbon compounds
Are the boiling of smaller or larger hydrocarbon compounds lower and will vaporize first?
smaller
What is cracking?
large molecules are broken into smaller molecules (useful for gasoline)
What are isomers?
different compounds with the same chemical formula
What is octane-rating?
measures the fuel's antiknock properties (knocking=premature combustion)
What does isooctane have a rating of?
100
What does octane have a rating of?
-20
An octane rating will have 87% of what?
isooctane
What is the formula for efficiency?
(highest temp-lowest temp)/highest temp measured at kelvin
What must hold true for all nuclear reactions?
sum of mass numbers of reactants must equal the sum of the mass numbers of the products
What is an alpha particle?
Helium with mass number 4, 2 protons
What is a beta particle?
0e-1; converts a neutron to a proton
What is fission?
splitting of a large nucleus into 2 smaller nuclei
How can a fission reaction be tamed?
cadmium bars or control rods remove neutrons and slow the chain reaction
What are the advantages of nuclear energy?
It doesn't pollute the air or deplete fossil fuels
What are the disadvantages of nuclear energy?
spent fuel or a catastrophic explosion or fire
What is fusion?
the most energetic process in nature; involves the bringing together of two small nuclei
What is the problem with fusion?
controlling it is extrememly difficult; necessary temp is hotter than the sun
The emission of a gamma radiation causes the emitting isotope to do what?
lose energy
going from less to more molecules will exhibit increasing or decreasing entropy?
increasing
What is transmutation?
changing elements through nuclear reactions
What is one difficulty associated with utilizing nuclear fission reactions for generating electricity?
the extremely long-lived hazardous waste generated by these reactions
How is gasoline obtained from longer chain hydrocarbons?
thermal cracking and catalyctic cracking
How does a chemical reaction differ from a nuclear reaction?
In a nuclear reaction the elements change identities; in an ordinary chemical reaction they do not.
When crude oil is distilled, what molecule would you expect to be collected at the highest level in the distillation chamber and why?
the one with the lowest number of carbon molecules because it has the lowest boiling point
Which requires more energy: converting ice to water or converting water to steam?
water to steam
Why does argon not contribute to global warming?
Single atoms do not vibrate.
In fossil fuels, would you expect high or low levels of C14?
low
What is the relationship between heat and volume?
There is more heat in substances with more volume even when they are at the same temperature.
What property determines the direction of heat flow?
temperature
For an endothermic reaction, the bond energies of the reactants are what compared to the products?
greater
Ozone concentrations have been decreasing dramatically throughout the stratosphere over the past 30 years primarily because...
CFCs used as refrigerants migrate to the stratosphere, where they are photolyzed to form chlorine atoms that catalytically decompose ozone.
What is the primary component of an exhaled breath?
N2
What type of electromagnetic radiation can be absorbed by ozone?
Only UV-B, UV-C, and Infrared
Describe carbon monoxide.
tasteless, colorless, and odorless, but not undetectable
What is toxicity?
the effect of a substance on health.
Ozone concentrations have been decreasing dramatically throughout the stratosphere over the past 30 years primarily because...
CFCs used as refrigerants migrate to the stratosphere, where they are photolyzed to form chlorine atoms that catalytically decompose ozone.
What is the primary component of an exhaled breath?
N2
What type of electromagnetic radiation can be absorbed by ozone?
Only UV-B, UV-C, and Infrared
Describe carbon monoxide.
tasteless, colorless, and odorless, but not undetectable
What is toxicity?
the effect of a substance on health.
What is frequency?
the number of waves passing a fixed point in one second.
What is frequency?
the number of waves passing a fixed point in one second.
Ozone concentrations have been decreasing dramatically throughout the stratosphere over the past 30 years primarily because...
CFCs used as refrigerants migrate to the stratosphere, where they are photolyzed to form chlorine atoms that catalytically decompose ozone.
What is the primary component of an exhaled breath?
N2
What type of electromagnetic radiation can be absorbed by ozone?
Only UV-B, UV-C, and Infrared
Describe carbon monoxide.
tasteless, colorless, and odorless, but not undetectable
What is toxicity?
the effect of a substance on health.