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93 Cards in this Set

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scientific method
observations / experiments --> find paterns and trends --> formulate and test hypothesis (go back to beginning if wrong) --> theory
anything that has ____ takes up space
mass
____ are the building blocks of matter
atoms
when you cool gas it becomes:
liquid
when you compress gas it becomes:
liquid
when you cool liquid it becomes:
crystaline solid
when you heat crystaline solid it becomes:
liquid
when you heat liquid it becomes:
gas
when you reduce pressure on liquid it becomes:
gas
states of matter are:
solid, liquid, gas
Solid, fixed or not fixed volume?
fixed
Solid, fixed or not fixed shape?
fixed
Liquid, fixed or not fixed shape?
not fixed
Liquid, fixed or not fixed volume?
fixed
Gas, fixed or not fixed volume?
not fixed
Gas, fixed or not fixed shape?
not fixed
Most of the universe is made up of:
hydrogen
Nitrogen makes up ___% of the atmosphere
78%
Oxygen makes up ___% of the atmosphere
21%
Oxygen makes up ___% of the earth's crust
46%
What makes up 25% of the earth's crust?
silicon
Silicon makes up ___% of the earth's crust
25%
Most metals end in:
-ium
a heterogeneous compound is comparable to _____ because:
sand on a beach

because the composition, properties, and/or appearance are not consistent throughout
what is a "variable composition"?
element, molecule, or compound
when looking at a homogenous compound, we ask:
does it have more than one component?

does it have a variable composition?
Question: Does the homogeneous compound have more than one component?

Answer: yes

therefore it is a....
homogeneous mixture (solution)

same composition, properties, and appearance throughout
Question: Does the homogeneous compound have more than one component?

Answer: no

therefore it is a....
pure substance
Question: can the pure substance be separated into simpler substances?

Answer: yes

therefore it is a....
compound
Question: can the pure substance be separated into simpler substances?

Answer: no

therefore it is a....
element
mixtures are made up of:
elements, molecules, or compounds
compounds are made up of:
atoms
physical properties:
observed without changing a substance into another substance

(ex: density, mass, volume, boiling point)
chemical properties:
can ONLY be observed when a substance is changed into another substance

(ex: flammability, reactivity with acid)
intensive properties:
doesn't change when amount changes

(ex: boiling and melting points, density, color, temp, pressure)
extensive properties:
changes based on amount of substance

(ex: mass, volume, length, energy, # moles)
physical changes:
changes in matter that do not change the composition of substance

(ex: changes of state, temp, volume)
chemical changes:
changes that result in new substances

(combustion, oxidation, decomposition)
in the corse of a _____, the reacting substances are converted to new substances
chemical reaction
breaking down a compound into its elemental particles is a _____ change
chemical
distillation
separates homogeneous mixtures, based on differences in boiling point
filtration
separates solid substances from liquids and solutions
chomatography
separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent
Giga (abbreviation)
G
Giga (meaning)
10^9
Mega (abbreviation)
M
Mega (meaning)
10^6
Kilo (abbreviation)
k
Kilo (meaning)
10^3
Deci (abbreviation)
d
Deci (meaning)
10^-1
Centi (abbreviation)
c
Centi (meaning)
10^-2
Milli (abbreviation)
m
Milli (meaning)
10^-3
Micro (abbriviation)
μa
Micro (meaning)
10^-6
Nano (abbreviation)
n
Nano (meaning)
10^-9
Pico (abbreviation)
p
Pico (meaning)
10^-12
Femto (abbreviation)
f
Femto (meaning)
10^-15
A liter is a cube ____ long on each side
1 dm long (1/10 meter)
a milliliter is a cube ____ long on each side
1 cm (1/100 meter)
F (degrees) formula to C (degrees)
F = 9/5(C)+32
C (degrees) formula to F (degrees)
C= 5/9(F-32)
zeros are important in sig figs only
after the decimal point
sig figs for +/-
round to least significant decimal place
sig figs for */division
round to least significant digit in calculuation
atomic theory of matter, person?
john dalton
atomic theory of matter:
atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter
a given element has different _____.
isotopes
atoms cannot be ______
created or destroyed, they are "re-arranged"
Law of Constant Composition, person?
Proust
Law of Constant Composition, also known as:
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Constant Composition:
the elemental composition of a pure substance never varies
Law of Conversion of Mass
total mass before change = total mass after change

(hence why we balance equations)
Law of Multiple Proportions
always in ratios of small numbers
electron
negatively charged particle
charge/mass ratio of electron:
1.76 x 10^8 Coulombs / gram
charge/mass ratio of electron, person?
JJ Thompson
charge of electron, person?
Millikan
(oil drop experiment)
average charge of electron:
1.60 x 10^-19 C
mass of electron:
9.09 x 10^-28 g
radioactivity, person?
henri becquerel
radioactivity:
the spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom
alpha particles, beta particles, and y-rays, person?
Ernest Rutherford
"plumb pudding" model of the atom, person?
JJ Thompson, and disproved by Rutherford
setup of a nuclear atom:
small, dense nucleus withh the electrons around the atom -- lots of empty space
protons, person?
Rutherford
neutrons, person?
James Chadwick
which particles in the atom have about the same mass?
protons and neutrons