Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/124

Click to flip

124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
STERIC NUMBER
(# OF ATOMS BONDED TO CENTER ATOM ) + (# LONE PAIRS ON CENTRAL ATOMS)
LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
COMPARISON BETWEEN 2 DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS
LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
APPLIES TO A SINGLE COMPOUND (RATIO OF MASS IS CONSTANT)
IONIC BONDING (3)
*ELECTRONS LOST AND GAINED
*TRY TO BE LIKE NOBLE GASES
*METAL + NON METAL ONLY (SALT)
COVALENT BONDING (6)
*ELECTRONS SHARED
*CHEMICAL BOND
*NOT IONIC B/C NOT SALT
*NOT ACID B/C NO CHARGES
*NO CHARGED PARTICLES B/C NO METALS
*NO ELECTRICITY
POLAR COVALENT BOND
UNEQUAL SHARING OF E-
VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION MODEL (VSEPR MODEL)
IMPLIED SHAPE OF E- PAIRS
NOT MOLECULAR SHAPE

LINEAR SHAPE - 2 ATOMS
TRIANGULAR
TETRAHEDRON
NON LINEAR OF V SHAPED
LONE PAIRS
NOT ATOMS
JUST 2E- THAT STILL NEED SPACE
DIPOLE
MOLECULE HAS POS AND NEG SIDE
IS CONSIDERED POLAR
TEND TO DISSOLVE IN OTHER DIPOLE SPECIES

EX) OIL NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER
NOMENCLATURE OF SALTS

*note for transition metals
*METAL CATION = ELEMENT NAME
*NON METAL ANION = ELEMENT NAME + IDE SUFFIX

TRANSITION METALS DONT HAVE VALENCE E- SO USE NUMBER F/ VALENCE E- OF OTHER NON TRANSITIONAL ELMENT
GREEK NUMBER PREFIX
1 NO PREFIX
2 DI
3 TRI
4 TETRA
5 PENTA
6 HEXA
8 OCTA
10 DECA
NOMENCLATURE OF COVALENTLY BONDED COMPOUNDS

NON METAL + (NONMETAL or METALLOID)
LEAST X ELEMENT W/ ATOM # PREFIX
MOST X ELEMENT WITH IDE SUFFIX & # PREFIX
ELECTRONEGATIVITY (X) TRENDS
X INCR (UP) AND -->
H3O+
HYDRONIUM
NH4+
AMMONIUM
OH–
HYDROXIDE
O2 2–
PEROXIDE
O2 –1
SUPEROXIDE
CO3 2–
CARBONATE
H2CO3
CARBONIC ACID
HCO3–
HYDROGEN CARBONATE
NO3–
NITRATE
HNO3
NITRIC ACID
NO2 –1
NITRITE
HNO2
NITROUS ACID
PO4 3–
PHOSPHATE
H3PO4
PHOSPHORIC ACID
HPO4 2–
HYDROGEN PHOSPHATE
H2PO4 –1
DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE
SO4 2–
SULFATE
H2SO4
SULFURIC ACID
SO3 2–
SULFITE
H2SO3
SULFUROUS ACID
HSO4 –1
HYDROGEN SULFATE
HSO3 –1
HYDROGEN SULFITE
CN–
CYANIDE
MnO4 –1
PERMANGANATE
CrO4 2–
CHROMATE
SCN–
thiocyanate
TREND IN ACID NAMES
*if oxy-anion name ends in -ate the acid ends in -ic
*if oxy-anion name ends in -ite the acid ends in -ous
SOLUBILITY FOR NITRATES
*NITRATES ALL SOLUBLE
SOLUBILITY FOR AMMONIUM
ALL SOLUBLE
SOLUBILITY FOR

CHLORIDES
BROMIDES
IODIDES
All are soluble except their Ag+, Pb 2+ and Hg2 2+ salts.
SOLUBILITY FOR

HYDROXIDES
OXIDES
All hydroxides and oxides: insoluble with exception of alkalai metals & Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+.
SOLUBILITY FOR SULFIDES
All sulfides: insoluble with the exception of
alkalai & alkaline earth metals (Group I & II metals).
H2SO4
SULFURIC ACID
SO3 2–
SULFITE
H2SO3
SULFUROUS ACID
HSO4 –1
HYDROGEN SULFATE
HSO3 –1
HYDROGEN SULFITE
CN–
CYANIDE
MnO4 –1
PERMANGANATE
CrO4 2–
CHROMATE
SCN–
thiocyanate
TREND IN ACID NAMES
*if oxy-anion name ends in -ate the acid ends in -ic
*if oxy-anion name ends in -ite the acid ends in -ous
SOLUBILITY FOR NITRATES
*NITRATES ALL SOLUBLE
SOLUBILITY FOR AMMONIUM
ALL SOLUBLE
SOLUBILITY FOR

CHLORIDES
BROMIDES
IODIDES
All soluble EXCEPT their Ag+, Pb 2+ and Hg2 2+ salts.
SOLUBILITY FOR

HYDROXIDES
OXIDES
All hydroxides and oxides: INSOLUTLBE with EXCEPTION of alkalai metals & Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+.
SOLUBILITY FOR SULFIDES
All sulfides: INSOLUBLE with the EXCEPTION of
alkalai & alkaline earth metals (Group I & II metals).
SOLUBILITY FOR

PHOSPHATES
CARBONATES
ALL phosphate & carbonates: INSOLUBLE with EXCEPTION of alkalai metals and ammonium.
SOLUBILITY FOR SULFATES
All sulfates are soluble with the exception of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ & Pb2+.
PROCESS OF BALANCING A CHEMICAL REACTION IS JUSTIFIED BY:
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
*ASSURES EQUAL # ATOMS BOTH SIDES
*EQUAL CHARGES LEFT AND RIGHT
LIMITING REAGENT
*WILL BE USED UP FIRST
*DEFINES THEORETICAL YIELD
*NOT CALCULATED BY MASS PROPORTIONS
*CHANGE F/ GRAMS->MOL AND COMPARE TO MOLES FROM BALANCED EQN
PERCENT YIELD
(ACTUAL YIELD)/(THEORETICAL YIELD) ALL X 100 %
STOCHIOMETRY
MASS RELATIONS APPLIED TO BALANCE CHEMICAL REACTIONS
SOLUTION
*HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE OF 2OR MORE SUBSTANCES
*AKA ALLOYS (METAL + SOLID)
*USU DISSOLVED IN WATER
*AQUEOUS SOLUTION
SOLVENT
*ALWAYS ASSUME ITS WATER
*MAJOR COMPONENT
*DISSOLVING MEDIUM
SOLUTE
*MINOR COMPONENT
*PLACED ON SOLVENT
SATURATION
ACHIEVED WHEN LIMIT TO HOW MUCH SOLUTE CAN BE DISSOLVED IN WATER IS REACHED.
UNSATURATION
BEFORE LIMIT IS REACHED
SATURATION TREND
COMPOUNDS: SIMILAR -> MIXED IN ANY PROPORTIONS
ALSO TEMP DEPENDENT
MISCIBLE
NO LIMIT TO SOLUBILITY
SUPER SATURATION SOLUTION
*UNSTABLE SOLUTION
*WHEN SOLUBILITY LIMIT OF SUBSTANCE HAS BEEN EXCEEDED
NaC2H3O2
SODIUM ACETATE
MOLARITY (M)
[MOLES SOLUTE (DISSOLVED MATERIAL)] / [LITERS SOLUTION (VOLUME)]

HIGH MOLARITY = LOTS OF SOLUTE IN SOLUTION

[ACETONE] = MOLARITY OF ACETONE
C12H22O11
SUGAR
TYPES OF REACTIONS (3)
1.DISSOLUTION/PRECIPITATION
2.OXIDATION REDUCTION (REDOX)
3.ACID BASE
PRECIPITATION
PARTICLES F/ SOLUTION FORM A SOLID
DISSOLUTION
*GOES F/ SOLID TO LIQUID
*FORMS A CONDUCTING SOLUTION
SPECTATOR ION
NON PARTICIPANT IN PRECIP RXN
ELECTROLYTE
*SUBSTANCE DISSOLVED IN H20
*PRODUCED BY DISSOLUTIN RXN
*FORMS SEPARATE CATIONS/ANIONS
DIFFERENCE B/W PRECIPITATION IN SALTS
SOLUBILITY
SOLUBLE SALT
*WILL DISSOLVE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION
*IF >1 GRAM DISSOLVE IN 1 LITER
ACID
*"DISSOLVES" METALS (PREATOMIC)
*SOUR TASTE
*DYE LITMUS = RED
*HAS IONIC BOND (HAS CHARGES = NOT COVALENT)
*ELEMENT Y MUST HAV >X THAN H
*IF =ELECT X,NOT POLAR, NOT ACID
*H+ DONOR
*NOT ACID UNLES H IS PRESENT
BASE
*H+ ACCEPTOR
*BITTER TASTE
*TURN LITMUS BLUE
*LONE PAIR OF E- MUST BE PRESENT
CONJUGATE BASE OF ACID
FRAGMENT LEFT AFTER H+ IS ACCEPTED

*TO GET IT REMOVE H+ FROM ACID
CONJUGATE ACID OF BASE
*SPECIE PRODUCED WHEN H+ IS ACCEPTED
*TO GET IT ADD H+ TO BASE
DISSOLUTIN REACTION OF SALT AND WATER
ANIONS AND CATIONS BREAK APART (PHYSICAL PROCESS NO CHEM CHANGE)
FORMULA IS CHEM CHANGE B/C SOMETHING NEW HAS BEEN CREATED.
HC2H3O2
VINEGAR
TREND IN SALT/ELECTROLYTES
ALL SALTS ARE STRONG ELECTROLYTES CUS THEY GO 100% INTO ION FORMATION AS IT DISSOLVES.
*FEW IONS LOW CONDUCTIVITY.
EXAMPLES OF WEAK ACIDS
VITAMIN C, ASPIRIN, CITRIC ACID
EX) OF STRONG ACIDS
HCL, SULFURIC ACID , NITRIC ACID
H2SO4
SULFURIC ACID
HNO3
NITRIC ACID
OXIDES OF ELEMENTS
*THEY ARE ANHYDRIDES OF ACIDS AND BASES.
*ADDING MORE OXYGEN TO AN ELEMENT MAKES IT MORE ACIDIC OR BASIC.
METAL OXIDE
*BASE ANHYDRIDES
*MORE METTALLIC = STRONGER BASE
METAL OXIDES
*BASE ANHYDRIDES
*MORE METALLIC = STRONGER BASE
NON METALLIC OXIDES
*ACID ANHYDRIDES
*MORE NONMETALLIC = STRONGER ACID
AMPHOTERIC SUBSTANCE
FUNCTIONS AS ACID AND BASE
EX) WATER CAN FUNCTION AS BOTH
IT IS ALSO NEUTRAL
HALOGEN-HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS
SPECIAL CLASS OF NON OXYGEN CONTAINING ACIDS
EX)HF, HCL, HBr, HI
H2CO3
CARBONIC ACID
NEUTRALIZATION REACTION
WHEN A STRONG ACID REACTS WITH A STRONG BASE
REDOX RXN FOR GRP 1 METALS
+1
REDOX RXN FOR GRP 2 METALS
+2
REDOX RXN FOR FLUORINE
-1
REDOX RXN FOR GRP 7
-1 EXCEPT FOR COMPOUNDS WITH F OR O : FLUORINE OR OXYGEN WHERE IT CAN BE POSITIVE
REDOX RXN FOR HYDROGEN
+1 IN COMPOUNDS

-1 IN GRP 1 AND 2 METALS
REDOX RXN FOR OXYGEN
-2 UNLESS W/ F (F TAKES PRECEDENCE)

-1 IN PEROXIDES LIKE H202
REDUCTION
*GAIN OF E-
*REDUCTION IN OXIDATION #
OXIDATION
*LOSS OF E-
*INCREASE IN OXIDATIN #
REDUCIING AGENT
*THE SUPPLIER/DONOR OF E-
*LOSING ELECTRONS
*BEING OXIDIZED
OXIDIZING AGENT
*THE ACCEPTOR OF E-
*GAINING ELECTRONS
*BEING REDUCED
AVOGADRO'S LAW
V IS PROP TO N (MOLES)
CHARLES LAW
V IS PROP TO T
BOYLE'S LAW
V IS INVERSLY PROP TO P
IDEAL GAS LAW
*PV=NRT
*PV = (G/MW)RT
DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
TOTAL PRESSURE = SUM OF INDIVIDUAL PRESSURES OF EACH GAS BY ITSELF
PARTIAL PRESSURE
PRESSURE EXERTED IF THE GAS WERE ALONE IN THE CONTAINER W/O OTHER GASES
UNITS OF PRESSURE (3)
*SI UNIT Pa
* 1 ATM = 101325 Pa = 760 mm Hg
*TORR = mm Hg
UNITS OF VOLUME
SI UNIT m3 BUT USU LITERS
R: GAS LAW CONSTANT
R = .08206 L ATM
_____________
MOL K
STP
* STANDARD TEMP AND PRESSURE
* T = 273 K OR 0*C
* P = 1 ATM
UNIT OF TEMP
KELVIN

K = C + 273`