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213 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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homogeneous
all mixed together equally, all in one phase
Heterogeneous
orange juice with pulp, liquid + solid
mega- (M)
1,000,000 million
kilo- (k)
1,000 thousand
deci- (d)
0.1 tenth
centi- ( c)
0.01 hundredth
milli- (m)
0.001 thousandth
micro- (nu)
0.000001 millionth
Density=
mass/volume
Celsius to Fahrenheit
F = (9/5)C + 32
precision
how close measurements in a series are to eachother
accuracy
how close a measurement is to the actual value
kinetic energy
energy due to motion
potential energy
energy due to position
K to C
C = K - 273.15
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is conserved in chemical reactions
Law of Constant Composition
compounds compositions are the same ANYTIME, ANYWHERE
Law of Multiple Proportions
Elements combine in specific rations every time
Isotope
atoms with same number of protons, but different numbers of NEUTRONS
Atomic Number (Z)
Number of PROTONS
Mass Number (A)
number of protons + neutrons
Isotopic Symbol
AZ X
Atomic Mass
mass of a single atom
Molecular Mass
mass of a single molecule (sum of atomic masses of each atom in molecule)
Formula mass
the sum of the atomic masses of each atom in a formula unit (ionic compounts, not molecules, but crystalline)
Average Atomic mass
Atomic mass when all isotopes and their relative percentages are taken into account
Covalent Compounds
Compounds resulting from the sharing of electrons by atoms
ionic compounds
compounds composed of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions)
Cation
positive ion
Anion
negative ion
Covalent Bond
nonmetal + nonmetal
Covalent Bond
Metalloid + nonmetal
Ionic Bond
Metal + Nonmetal
SiCl4 (I or C?)
Covalent
LiF (I or C?)
Ionic
BaCl2 (I or C?)
Ionic
B2H6 (I or C?)
Covalent
Na2O (I or C?)
Ionic
C2H4 (I or C?)
Covalent
Empirical Formula
Shows the simplest integer ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
Molecular Formula
Shows the number of Atoms of ach element in a molecule
Structural Formula
Shows the connectivity of the atoms in a molecule
Formulas of hydrogen peroxide
Empirical Formula: HO Molecular Formula H2O2
Naming Ionic Compounds: metals w. only one type of ion
metal name + nonmetal name with ide suffix NaCl - sodium chloride
Naming Ionic Compounds: Metals with two or more different ions
metal name (oxidation state as Roman numeral in parenthesis) + nonmetal name with ide suffix PbO2 - Lead (IV) Oxide
Naming Ionic Compounds: Hydrates
name as other ionic compounds except add prefix + hydrate as third word Bacl2 . 2H2O - barium Chloride Dihydrate
Hydrate
compound whose crystals contain discrete water molecules (water of hydration)
Naming Covalent Compounds
element name with prefix (mono, di, tri… etc) N2O4 - dinitrogen tetroxide
Covalent Compunds, periodic table position
both elements from right hand side of periodic table
mono
1
di
2
tri
3
tetra
4
penta
5
hexa
6
hepta
7
octa
8
nona
9
deca
10
Naming Polyatomic Ions
Compounds of Polyatomic ions are named like binary ionic compounds K2CO3 - potassium carbonate
Acid
Yield H+ ions in water
Binary Aqueous Acids
acid = 2 elements (aq) = in water
HCl (aq)
hydrochloric acid
HI (aq)
hydroiodic acid
H2S (aq)
hydrosulfuric acid
HCN (aq)
hydrocyanic acid
Naming Binary Aqueous Acids
hydro + (partial) element name with ic suffix + acid
Oxoacids
contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element
Naming Oxoacids
(partial) element name + suffix + acid
-ic acids
-ate anions
-ous acids
-ite anions
H2SO4
sulfuric acid
HNO3
nitric acid
H2CO3
carbonic acid
HClO2
chlorous acid
Hydrocarbons
contain only carbon and hydrogen
Alkanes
hydrocarbons with only single bonds
Compound
matter composed of two or more different elements chemically bonded together
mixture
two or more substances that are physically intermingled
PT: group
vertical columns
PT: period
horizontal rows
pt: Metals
first 2 groups, minus H.. Entire middle section, including removed portion, and elements to the right of the stairstep, including Al and Po
pt: Nonmetals
Hydrogen, Plus colums 14-18 on right side of stair step line
pt: Metalloids
Elements along both sides of stairstep line, minus Al, Po, At
pt: elements in a group
have similar chemical properties
pt: elements in a period
have different chemical properties
diatomic molecules
N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
tetratomic molectule
P4
octatomic molecules
S8, Se8
silver ion
Ag+
zinc ion
(Zn)2+
cadmium ion
(Cd)2+
Chromium
II & III
Cobalt
II & III
Copper
I & II
Iron
II & III
Lead
II & IV
Mercury
I & II
Tin
II & IV
Manganese
II & IV
Nickle
II & III
ammonium
(NH4)+
hydronium
H3O+
acetate
CH3COO-
cyanide
CN-
hydroxide
OH-
hypochlorite
ClO-
chlorite
(ClO2)-
chlorate
(ClO3)-
perchlorate
(ClO4)-
nitrite
(NO2)-
nitrate
(NO3)-
permanganate
(MnO4)-
carbonate
(CO3)2-
hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
(HCO3)-
chromate
(CrO4)2-
dichromate
(Cr2O7)2-
peroxide
(O2)2-
phosphate
(PO4)3-
hydrogen phosphate
(HPO4)2-
dihydrogen phosphate
(H2PO4)-
sulfite
(SO3)2-
sulfate
(SO4)2-
hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)
(HSO4)-
1 mole (mol)
6.022 x 1023
molar mass
the mass in grams of one mol of substance
mass % =
mass of atoms of element/mass of all atoms x 100
find empiricle formula of compound with C=44.77% H=7.52% and O=47.71%
C5H10O4
s
solid
l
liquid
g
gas
aq
aqueous
limiting reactant
reactant that runs out first and determines final amount
theoretical yield
max. possible yield of products, predicted by the balanced equation and reactant quantities
Theoretical yield of ammonia in the reaction of 25.0 g N2 and 6.00 g H2?
Theoretical Yield = 30.4 g NH3
Percent yield =
actual yield/theoretical yield
41.5 g bromobenzene from 25.2 g benzene and excess bromine, percent yield?
81.90%
What mass of iron(III) oxide will be produced if 12.3 g of iron react with an excess of oxygen according to the reaction, 4F(s) + 3O2(g) --> 2Fe2O3(s)
a) 4.4 g b) 8.8 g c) 16.7g d) 17.6 g e) 35.2 g
solution
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
solute
the solution component present in a smaller amount
solvent
the solution component present in a larger amount
aqueous solution
a solution with water as solvent and gas, liquid, or solid as solute
concentration
amount of solute dissolved in given quantity of solution
molarity (M) =
moles of solute/liters of solution
What volume of 0.246 AgNO3 is required to completely precipitate all of the Cl- in 0.250 L of 0.153 M BaCl2?
0.311 L
isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula, but with different properties (shape, etc.)
acid compound is 40.0 mass % C, 6.71 mass % H, and 53.3 mass % O. (a) determine empirical formula (b) determine molecular formula
(a) CH2O (b) C3H6O3
water
high polarity makes it a good solvent
electrolytes
substance that conducts current when dissolved in water
hydration
when an ionic compound is dissociated by water ions
nonelectrolytes
do not dissociate in water and therefore do not conduct electricity
strong electrolyte
dissociates nerly 100% into ions in water
weak electrolyte
substance that ionizes only slightly in water
Aqueous Ionic Reactions: Molecular Equation
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 NaBr (aq) --> Pb(Br2) (s) + 2 (NaNO3) (aq)
Aqueous Ionic Reactions: Total Ionic Equation (split into ions and include spectator ions)
(Pb)2+ (aq) + 2(NO3)- (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2 Br- (aq) --> (PbBr2) (s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2(NO3)- (aq)
Aqueous Ionic Reactions: Net Ionic Equation (omit spectator ions)
Pb2+ (aq) + 2Br- (aq) --> PbBr2 (s)
K3PO4 (aq) + Ca(NO3)2 (aq) --> Ca3(PO4)2 (s) + ?? Write the net ionic equation for this reaction
3(Ca)2+ (aq) + 2P(O4)3- (aq) --> Ca3(PO4)2 (s)
precipitate
an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution
Solubility Rules: things that are soluble
1. Common compounds of (1) and ammonium ions 2. Common nitrates, acetates, perchlorates 3. Chlorides, Bromides, Iodides, EXCEPT those of Ag+, (Pb)2+, Cu+, and (Hg2)2+ 4. Sulfates, EXCEPT those of (Ca)2+, (Sr)2+, (Ba)2+, Ag+, and (Pb)2+
Solubility Rules: things that are not soluble
1. All metal hydroxides, EXCEPT those of (1) and the larger members of (2) beginning with (Ca)2+ 2. Carbonates and Phosphates, EXCEPT those of (1) and (NH4)+ 3. Sulfides EXCEPT those of (1), (2) and (NH4)+
Double Displacement: metathesis reactions
AX + BY --> AY + BX
Soluble? CuCl2
Soluble
Soluble? Mn(OH)2
Insoluble
Soluble? Na2Cr2O7
Soluble
Soluble? NiSO4
Soluble
Soluble? Ca3(PO4)2
Insoluble
Soluble? K2S
Soluble
Will a precip form? BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) -->
yes
Will a precip form? CaCl2 (aq) + KC2H3O2 (aq)
no
base
yield OH- in water
hydrochloric acid (strong acid)
HCl
nitric acid (strong acid)
HNO3
sulfuric acid (strong acid)
H2SO4
sodium hydroxide (strong base)
NaOH
potassium hydroxide (strong base)
KOH
acid + base -->
salt + water
titrant
a solution of accurately known concentration
analyte
a solution of unknown concentration
equivalence point
exact titrant volume required to completely react with the analyte
end point
the titrat volume slightly in excess of that required to completely react with the analyte
24.57 mL of 0.1008 M NaOH are required to neutralize 25.00 mL of HCl. What is the HCl molarity?
0.09907 M
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
a proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry Base
a proton acceptor
Oxidation-reduction reaction (redox)
a reaction in which there is a net movement of electrons from one reactant to or towards another
oxidation number
the charge an atom has or would have if all unevenly shared electrons were transferred completely
on: elemental form
0
on: monatomic ion
on = ionic charge
on: sum of on in compound
equals zero
on: (1)
1
on: (2)
2
on: hydrogen
+1 when in combination with nonmetals
on: fluorine
-1 in combination with metals and boron
on: oxygen
-1 in peroxides, -2 in other compounds, except with F
on: (17)
-1 with metals, nonmetals (besides O), and halogens lower in the group
on: S8
0
on: Al2O3
Al = +3 O= -2
on: N2H4
N = -2 H = +1
on: S2(O3)2-
S = +2 O = -2
on: HP(O4) 2-
H = +1 P= +5 O = -2
on: CH3OH
C = -2 H = +1 O = -2
if x loses electrons…..
x is oxidized x is the reducing agent x increases its oxidation number
if y gains electrons….
y is reduced y is the oxidizing agent y degreases its oxidation number
12.19 mL of 0.1038 M KMnO4 were required to oxidize 25.00 mL of FeCl2. What is the molarity of the FeCl2, given the reaction: MnO4- (aq) + 5 Fe2+ (aq) + 8H+ (aq) ---> Mn2+ (aq) + 5Fe3+ (aq) + 4H2O (l)
0.01276 M
A + B ---> C
Combination
C ---> A + B
Decomposition
A + BC ---> AC + B
displacement
metal activity series
Li, K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb
reversible reaction
reaction that proceeds simultaneously in both directions
equilibrium
the forward reaction and the reverse reaction proceed at equal rates
To standardize an HCl solution, 50.00 mL of HCl is put in flask with indicator. 0.1524 M NaOH goes into buret with initial reading of 0.55 mL and an end point reading of 33.87 mL. What is the concentration of the HCl solution?
0.1016 M HCl
Oxidation
the LOSS of electrons (LEO)
Reduction
the GAIN of electrons (GER)
combustion reactions
2C4H10 + 13O2 ----> 8CO2 + 10H2O