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65 Cards in this Set

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What is the equation for rate?
Rate Law= k{concentration}^(m)
What are the first order equations?
1st Order
Ln(A/Ao)=-kt
{A}={Ao}e^(-kt)Is
What are rate equations?
2nd order
rate=k{a}^(2)
1/(A)=kt+1/(Ao)
t1/2=1/ {Ao)K
What are the factors for rate?
What are factors in rates? Temp, concentration, catalysts, surface area
What is the rate of reaction?
Rate of a reaction=change in concentration/ change in time
What are reaction orders?
N,m=called order of reaction with respect to a particular reactant
how do you determine overall order
Overall order=N+M
How can k be determined?
Rate/Rate=k(x)N*y(m)/k(x)n*y(M)
What is another equation for finding order?
Order=log(rate 1)-log(rate 2)/ log(concentration of two)-log(concentration of 1)
What is rate?
Rate=k {conc)(conc)
What is the equation for 1st order half life?
Half life for first order=.693/k
What is the equation for a second order half life?
2nd order
1/(A)t=kt+1/(A)o
t1/2=1/(Ao)k
How do conc, temp, urface area factor in?
How do concentration temp and surface areas factor in?
Higher SA more collisions, must collide to react, higher concentration more collisions, higher temp, faster more collisions
What is the formula for Ae? What is Ae?
K=Ae-Ea/kt
Ae=orientation, frequency of collisions
How does orientation play a role?
Must be at a certain orientation when collide
what is activation energy?
Activation energy; energy needed to start a reaction
What is Arrhenius's law?
What is Arrhenius’s law=ln(k1/k2)=Ea/r(1/T1-1/T2)
What are elementary reactions?
Elementary reactions
Reactions can occur by one or a series of steps and each step is called an elementary reaction
How are collisions termed?
Single Molecule: unimolecular, no collision
Collision of two molecules: bimolecular
Collision of 3 molecules: termolecular
What is an intermediate?
Intermediate: moleculae formed during reaction, but does no appear in overall reaction
What determines rate?
Slow step is rate determining
How do determine multiple step reactions?
Multiple step rate laws: write the rate for the slowest and eliminate intermediates because they cannot be measured experimentally
What is preequilibrium?
Pre-equlibrium: rate forward=reverse rate and then solve for intermidates
what is steady state?
Steady state-assume rate of the production of the intermidate=rate of its consumption
how do catalysts work?
How do catalysts work? Change mechanism lowering EA, not catalyst in reaction or products
What are the different types of decay?
Alpha-emit helium

Beta-emit electron
Positron-give off electron with a positive charge
what is electron capture?
Electron capture=inner shell electron goes intot the nucleus converts a proton into neutron, emits energy x-ray radiation will be emitted form electron, takes an electron
What is artificial reactivity?
Artificial reactivity
Takens in a helium and gives of a neutron, create a radioactive species
What is radioactive decay?
Radioactive decay-rate of disintegrating proportional to # of atoms present
How does half life relate to metal?
First order-1/2 life is different depending on metal

Ln(Nt/No)=-kt or Nt=Noe^)-kt)
Decribe acids and bases?
Acids are proton donors
Bases are proton acceptors
what are conjugate cids.bases?
Conjugate acids and bases-differ only in presence or absense of a proton
What is the kw for water?
Kw=1*10^(-14) @25
What are strong acids/bases?
Strong acids-ionize completely -
Strong bases ionize completely generating OH
What is chemical equilibrium?
Chemical equilibiurm is a condition in which macroscopic conditions do not changhe, but microscopic condition are still taking place
What is tyhe law of amss action?
Law of mass action: for any chemical system at equilbirum, the concentrations of sall species must obey the equilbrium constant expression for Kc for that system, is fixed at given temp
What is kc?
Kc=(conc prod)^(n)/(conc react)^(m)
What is kp?
Kp=(pressure prod)^n/(pressure react)^m
What is the relationship between kp and kc
Kp=Kc*RT^(delta n)
What is delta n
Delta n=moles of prod-react
What does a small constant show?
What does a small constant represent-large denominater so lots of reactants
What is heterogenous equilibrium?
For heterogenous equilibrium the equilibrium pressures or concentrations do not depend on the amount of pure solids or liquids
What is q?
Q=given point, not nessarily equilibrium
What is Le chateliers?
Le Chateliers: If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by change in overall temp or volume or a change in the pressure or concentration of any of the reacting specieas the system will shift in such as way as to counteract that change in order to reestablish equilbrium
What is a reaction rate?
the change in the concentraion of reactants or products per unit time?
What is an instaneous rate?
rate at a particular moment in the reaction
What is a rate law? this is from the book?
=k(a^m)(b(^n)
What does k show?
determine by temp so shows the affects of temp
What do the exponents show?
indicate how the rate is affected by the concentration of each reactant
What depends on concentration?
the rate, but not the rate constant
What is a second order reaction?
is one whose rate depends on the reactant concentration raised to the second power
What is a half life?
the time required for the concen tration of a reactant tor each one half of its initial value
How do things decrease in a first order?
decrease by half each interval of time
What is the activation energy?
the miniumum energy required to initiate a chemical reaction
What is the the frequency factor?
A-constant, related to frequency of collisions
What is the haber process?
in he presence of a catalyst combines N2 and H2 at high pressure and temp
What does the equilibirum constant depend on?
only on the stiochematry not on its mechanisms
How is equilbrium constant affected?
the constant in a reverse direction inverse of the equilbrium constant of the reaction on the forward direction, if has been multiplied by a number then the constant is raised to a power equal to that number, if two or more steps it is the sum
What is Q
number obtained by substituing starting reactant and product concentrations or pressures into the equilibrium constant expression
How does volume and pressure effect equilbrium?
reducing the vo,ume of a gaseous mixture causes the system to shift in the direction that reduces number of moles of gas
How do you treat heat?
as a reactant
how does a catalyst affect?
increases speed, but not concentration
What are on the sides of the atom?
atomic number and mass numberws
What is gamma radiation?
consists of high energy phtotons, chnages neither in atomic mass or number, accompanies other radioactive emission because it represents energy kist when they arrange into more stable arrangements, not shown when writing
ln(Nt/No)=-kt
No=initial nuclei, Nt=number remaining, k-decay constant