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### 65 Cards in this Set

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 What is the equation for rate? Rate Law= k{concentration}^(m) What are the first order equations? 1st Order Ln(A/Ao)=-kt {A}={Ao}e^(-kt)Is What are rate equations? 2nd order rate=k{a}^(2) 1/(A)=kt+1/(Ao) t1/2=1/ {Ao)K What are the factors for rate? What are factors in rates? Temp, concentration, catalysts, surface area What is the rate of reaction? Rate of a reaction=change in concentration/ change in time What are reaction orders? N,m=called order of reaction with respect to a particular reactant how do you determine overall order Overall order=N+M How can k be determined? Rate/Rate=k(x)N*y(m)/k(x)n*y(M) What is another equation for finding order? Order=log(rate 1)-log(rate 2)/ log(concentration of two)-log(concentration of 1) What is rate? Rate=k {conc)(conc) What is the equation for 1st order half life? Half life for first order=.693/k What is the equation for a second order half life? 2nd order 1/(A)t=kt+1/(A)o t1/2=1/(Ao)k How do conc, temp, urface area factor in? How do concentration temp and surface areas factor in? Higher SA more collisions, must collide to react, higher concentration more collisions, higher temp, faster more collisions What is the formula for Ae? What is Ae? K=Ae-Ea/kt Ae=orientation, frequency of collisions How does orientation play a role? Must be at a certain orientation when collide what is activation energy? Activation energy; energy needed to start a reaction What is Arrhenius's law? What is Arrhenius’s law=ln(k1/k2)=Ea/r(1/T1-1/T2) What are elementary reactions? Elementary reactions Reactions can occur by one or a series of steps and each step is called an elementary reaction How are collisions termed? Single Molecule: unimolecular, no collision Collision of two molecules: bimolecular Collision of 3 molecules: termolecular What is an intermediate? Intermediate: moleculae formed during reaction, but does no appear in overall reaction What determines rate? Slow step is rate determining How do determine multiple step reactions? Multiple step rate laws: write the rate for the slowest and eliminate intermediates because they cannot be measured experimentally What is preequilibrium? Pre-equlibrium: rate forward=reverse rate and then solve for intermidates what is steady state? Steady state-assume rate of the production of the intermidate=rate of its consumption how do catalysts work? How do catalysts work? Change mechanism lowering EA, not catalyst in reaction or products What are the different types of decay? Alpha-emit helium Beta-emit electron Positron-give off electron with a positive charge what is electron capture? Electron capture=inner shell electron goes intot the nucleus converts a proton into neutron, emits energy x-ray radiation will be emitted form electron, takes an electron What is artificial reactivity? Artificial reactivity Takens in a helium and gives of a neutron, create a radioactive species What is radioactive decay? Radioactive decay-rate of disintegrating proportional to # of atoms present How does half life relate to metal? First order-1/2 life is different depending on metal Ln(Nt/No)=-kt or Nt=Noe^)-kt) Decribe acids and bases? Acids are proton donors Bases are proton acceptors what are conjugate cids.bases? Conjugate acids and bases-differ only in presence or absense of a proton What is the kw for water? Kw=1*10^(-14) @25 What are strong acids/bases? Strong acids-ionize completely - Strong bases ionize completely generating OH What is chemical equilibrium? Chemical equilibiurm is a condition in which macroscopic conditions do not changhe, but microscopic condition are still taking place What is tyhe law of amss action? Law of mass action: for any chemical system at equilbirum, the concentrations of sall species must obey the equilbrium constant expression for Kc for that system, is fixed at given temp What is kc? Kc=(conc prod)^(n)/(conc react)^(m) What is kp? Kp=(pressure prod)^n/(pressure react)^m What is the relationship between kp and kc Kp=Kc*RT^(delta n) What is delta n Delta n=moles of prod-react What does a small constant show? What does a small constant represent-large denominater so lots of reactants What is heterogenous equilibrium? For heterogenous equilibrium the equilibrium pressures or concentrations do not depend on the amount of pure solids or liquids What is q? Q=given point, not nessarily equilibrium What is Le chateliers? Le Chateliers: If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by change in overall temp or volume or a change in the pressure or concentration of any of the reacting specieas the system will shift in such as way as to counteract that change in order to reestablish equilbrium What is a reaction rate? the change in the concentraion of reactants or products per unit time? What is an instaneous rate? rate at a particular moment in the reaction What is a rate law? this is from the book? =k(a^m)(b(^n) What does k show? determine by temp so shows the affects of temp What do the exponents show? indicate how the rate is affected by the concentration of each reactant What depends on concentration? the rate, but not the rate constant What is a second order reaction? is one whose rate depends on the reactant concentration raised to the second power What is a half life? the time required for the concen tration of a reactant tor each one half of its initial value How do things decrease in a first order? decrease by half each interval of time What is the activation energy? the miniumum energy required to initiate a chemical reaction What is the the frequency factor? A-constant, related to frequency of collisions What is the haber process? in he presence of a catalyst combines N2 and H2 at high pressure and temp What does the equilibirum constant depend on? only on the stiochematry not on its mechanisms How is equilbrium constant affected? the constant in a reverse direction inverse of the equilbrium constant of the reaction on the forward direction, if has been multiplied by a number then the constant is raised to a power equal to that number, if two or more steps it is the sum What is Q number obtained by substituing starting reactant and product concentrations or pressures into the equilibrium constant expression How does volume and pressure effect equilbrium? reducing the vo,ume of a gaseous mixture causes the system to shift in the direction that reduces number of moles of gas How do you treat heat? as a reactant how does a catalyst affect? increases speed, but not concentration What are on the sides of the atom? atomic number and mass numberws What is gamma radiation? consists of high energy phtotons, chnages neither in atomic mass or number, accompanies other radioactive emission because it represents energy kist when they arrange into more stable arrangements, not shown when writing ln(Nt/No)=-kt No=initial nuclei, Nt=number remaining, k-decay constant