Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is a polar molecule?
A molecule in which opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges.
Water - H2O
What is kinetic energy?
It is the energy of motion. The faster the molecule moves, the greater its kinetic energy.
What is heat?
It is the measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion.
What is temperature?
It measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
What is a calorie?
It is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1C.
What is a kilocalorie?
A kilocalorie, 1000 calories, is the amount of heat required to to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
Calories on packages are actually kilocalories.
What is the specific heat of a substance?
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1gram of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius.
What is vaporization?
It is the transformation from a liquid to a gas.
AKA evaporation
Is water more or less dense as a solid than as a liquid?
It is less dense as ice can float on water.
What is a solution?
A completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. It is made up of a solvent (the dissolving agent) and a solute (the substance that gets dissolved).
What is an aqueous solution?
One in which water is the solvent.
What is a hydration shell?
The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion.
Define hydrophilic.
Any substance, ionic or polar, that has an affinity for water (tend to dissolve).
NaCl (salt is an example)
Define hydrophobic.
Any substance, nonionic and nonpolar, that does not have an affinity for water (tends to not mix).
vegetable oil is an example.
What is molecular mass?
It is the sum of all masses of each atom in a molecule.
Define molarity.
It is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Explain hydrogen ion.
This is what happens when a hydrogen atom between two water molecules shifts from one molecule to the other. It leaves its electron behind resulting in a 1+ charge.

The water molecule that lost a proton is now a hydroxide ion (OH-) and the other is a hydronium ion (H3O+)
Define acid.
It is a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

Solutions with higher concentration of H+ than OH- are known as acidic solutions.
HCl---->H+ +Cl-
hydrochloric acid
Define base.
Is is a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

Solutions with higher concentration of OH- than H+ are known as basic solutions.
Define buffers.
Substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution.

Accepts hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donates hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted.
help to maintain the pH of human blood level to close to 7.4