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### 50 Cards in this Set

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 what is ohms law V=IR current measured in: amps resistance measured in: ohms squiggle means alternating two lines, one solid and one dotted means direct this law is basis for gas thermometer charles law charles law says this volume = constant x temperature why adding water to bulb extends the range of the thermometer PV=nRT, less gas in the tube means there is less change in the volume, so the height of the plug varies less, allowing it to move further advantages of a silicon temp sensor over a Hg in glass thermometer responds quickly, small and useful in power supplies, environmentally safer, large range, no harmful mercury alternating voltage setting V~, 3 4 direct voltage V line dot dash, 3 4 resistance horseshoe, 3 4 alternating current A~, 2 4 direct current A line dot dash, 2 4 numbering of multimeter ports 1 3 2 4 calculate Rf value Rf=(distance moved by component)/(distance moved by mobile phase front) mobile phase in paper chromatography 2:1 propanol to water stationary phase in paper chromatography piece of chromatography paper use "like dissolves like" principle to rationalize relative Rf values sample moves farther because it is the same polarity as mobile phase. something of the opposite polarity does not move very far. define retention volume Vr Vr is the volume of the mobile phase required to carry a component through the chromatographic system. what does a larger Vr mean about a component's ability to interact with the liquid chromatography column? higher Vr means solutions are less alike and the sample is harder to dissolve how do you get the best chromatographic seperation? maximize component migration differences of all components and minimize the component spreading that occurs stationary phase of gas chromatograph tide detergent mobile phase of gas chromatograph natural gas why do samples have different retention times? affinity of gas to the tide, length and tightness of column, gas flow rate difference between CFC and HCFC? CFCs have a smaller molar mass, more stable and volatile, cheaper. HCFCs are being phased out because of environmental health problems. carbon halogen bonds do not break down easily causing environmental longevity practical applications of GC? science, medicine, and industry; trace pollutants in air, trace drugs in blood, examine petroleum refinery products a voltaic cell is spontaneous an electrolytic cell is nonspontaneous, must force current through it in electrolytic, anode is: positive in electrolytic, cathode is: negative in voltaic, anode is negative in voltaic, cathode is positive how do you make a lead acid battery? fill a well with sulfuric acid, connect two pieces of lead to a meter, charge it by connecting it to a 9v battery what happens when a battery has run down Ecell at equilibrium goes to Eocell define chemical kinetics study of various factors that control the rates of reactions and the study of mechanisms by which reactants become products what is the rate of reaction determined by? temperature, concentration, diffusion rate, presence of catalyst what is the rate determining step slowest reaction step, determines the rate of the reaction give definition for mechanism of a reaction all of the actual elementary steps involving molecules that take place simultaneously or consecutively and that added together give the observed overall reaction define activation energy amount of enery required for reaciton to take place pink color means base purple color means acid for an indicator, where do you want the equivalence point? half way to equivalence point what effect does a dilution have on pH of a buffer no effect what effect does a dilution have on buffer capacity? capacity decreases pH = ? pKa at 1/2 way to equivalence point henderson hasselbalch pH=pKa + log Q Ka = 10 ^ -pKa why are buffers biologically relevant buffers keep a system at homeostasis or close to it what is buffer capacity abilty to resist small changes in pH