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### 113 Cards in this Set

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 physical property readily observable ex. color, size, luster, smell chemical property only observable during a chemical reaction physical change changes that do not result in the production of a new substance. ex. melt ice...still water chemical change changes that result in production of another substance. ex. burning a log in the fireplace density = mass / volume amount of heat (q) m x c x change in T m= mass c= specific heat how to find simplest/empirical formula: assume 100 grams change % to grams divide by molar mass/atomic weight find smallest and divide each answer by it that's how many of each element you have how to find molecular formula: find emirical/simpliest formula calculate molar mass/atomic weight of that divide by weight given in problem % yield = actual / theoretical x 100% actual yield is what you ACTUALLY get theoretical yield is what you SHOULD get 1 mL = 1 cm^3 specific gravity = density (substance) / density (water) -density of water = 1.oo g C (specific heat) of water = 4.184 J kelvin --> centigrade and centigreade --> kelvin K = C + 273 C = K - 273 Fahrenheit --> centigrade and centigrade --> fahrenheit F = 1.8 x C +32 C = F -32 / 1.8 isotopes: same number of protons, different number of neutrons % composition = mass of an individual element in a compound / total mass of the compound x 100% % purity = mass of pure substance / mass of sample x 100% limiting reagent: given two masses (or moles) of reactant determine mass of reactant possible from each reactant. smaller number is teh maximum mass of product possible (and your limiting reagent) % solute = mass of solute / mass solution x 100% molarity = moles / L dilution formula: (m1)(v1) = (m2)(v2) good conductors of electricity and heat metallic gray or "silvery" in color typically solid at room temp. malleable ductile physical prooperties of metals poor electrical conductors poor conductors of heat; actually, insulators brittle solids nonductile physical properties of nonmetals outer shell contain few electrons (< 3) form cations by losing electrons form ionic compounds with nonmetals solid state characterized by metallic bonding chemical properties of metals outer shell contain 4 or more electrons form anion by gaining electrons form ionic compound with metals and covalent commpounds with other nonmetls form covalently bonded molecules; noble gases are monatomic chemical properties of nonmetals stonge electrolytes dissociate or ionize ___________ in water completely the oxidation number of any free, uncombined element is _______ 0 3 ways to write reactions: molecular formula total ionic formula net ionic formula molecular formula shows... all reactants and products in molecular or ion form total ionic equation shows... the ions and molecules as they exist in solution net ionic equation shows... ions that participate in reaction and removes spectator ions naming binary compounds name cation first (normal name) anion named second (with -ide) ~more than one oxidation state, use roman numerals between cation and anion naming psudobinary ionic compounds: contains one of the following: OH- (hyroxides) CN- (cyanide) NH4+ (ammonium) naming binary acids: hydrogen + nonmetal for gasaeous: hydrogen (stem)ide for acidic (aq): hyrdro(stem)ic acid naming binary covalent compounds: two or more nonmetals other than hydrogen. must use prefix to specify number of atoms. name more metallic element first (normal name) name less metallic element second (and -ide) to stem naming ternary acids: 3 elements: H, O, and a nonmetal per ic ous hypo ate ions --> ic acids ite ions --> ous acids wavelength = h /mv h = planks constant = 6.626 x 10^-34 j/s/ principle quantum number: (n) main energy level that the electron ocucpies (n = 1,2,3,4,...) angular momentum quantum number: (l) designates teh sublevel (which correlates to the pecific shape of the orbital) (l = 0,1,2,3...(n-1)) magnetic quantum number: (ml) designates teh specific orbital within a subshell that the electron occupies (ml = -1 --> +1) spin quantum number: (ms) refers to the spin of an electron and teh orientation of teh magnetic field produced by this spin (ms = +/- 1/2) oxidation-reduction ("redox") reaction: loss of electrons is oxidation gain of electrons is reduction LEO the lion says GER oxidized species is reducing agent reduced species is oxidizing agent combination reaction: occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound decomposition reaction: occurs when one compound decomposes to form: two elements one or more elements and one or more compounds two or more compounds displacement reaction: occur when one element displaces another element from a compound. remember activity series. activity series: Li, K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, F, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Ag, Hg, Pt, Au metahesis ("double-displacement") reaction occurs when 2 ionic aqueous solutions are mixed and the ions swith partners atomic weight = weighted average of the masses of its stable isotopes: (weight)(%) + (weight)(%) + ... 1 A = 1 x 10^-10 m c (speed of teh propagation of the wave) = wavelength x velocity if in visible spectrum...c = 3.00 x 10^8 m/s energy (e) = hv OR hc/wavlength 1/wavelength = r(1/n1^2 - 1/n2^2) r = 1.097 x 10^7 m^-1 atomic radii: icreases right to left and increases top to bottom ionization energy: increases left to right and increases bottom to top electron affinity: increases left to rigth and increases bottom to top electronegativity increases left to right and increases top to bottom louis dot formulas of atoms: each "dot" represents one valence electron each of the four sides of the atoms symbol represents on orbital still obey hunds rule bonding pairs: shared pairs electrons involved in chemical bond unshared pairs: lone pair electrons associated with only one atom in the molecule rules for drawing lewis structures: determine total number of valence electrons decide on an arrangement of atoms most electronegative in middle single vs. multiple. ...single in middle connect al atoms with single bonds fill in octect for all atoms count to make sure all atoms have a complete octet and the total number of electrons is correct exceptions to octet rule: Br, B, S, P, As n-a=s rule: n=number of electrons needed to achieve a noble gas configuration (8) a=number of available electrons in valence shells of the atoms s=number of electorns shared in bonds a-s=number of electrons in unshared, lone pairs formual charge = group # - (# of bonds + # of unshared electrons) polar covalent bonds covalent bonds in which the electrons are not shared equally nonpolar covalent bonds: covalent bonds in which teh electrons are shared equally when counting regions of high electron density... focus on central atom when counting region of high electron desnity (# of groups) ... single bond = 1 group double bond = 1 group triple bond = 1 group lone pair = 1 group electronic geometry: total number of electron groups around central atom molecular geometry: takes into account how many electron groups are bonds and how many are lone paris 2 electron groups = linear (180) 3 electron groups = trigonal planar (120) 4 electron groups = tetrahedral (109.5) 5 electron groups = trigonal bipyramidal (90, 120) 6 electron groups = octahedral (90) octahedral: 6 bonding groups 0 lone pairs octahedral octahedral: 5 bonding groups 1 lone pair square pyramidal octahedral: 4 bonding groups 2 lone pairs square planar trigonal bipyramidal: 5 bonding groups 0 lone pairs trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal: 4 bonding groups 1 lone pair see-saw trigonal bipyramidal: 3 bonding groups 2 lone pairs t-shaped trigonal bipyramidal: 2 bonding groups 3 lone pairs linear tetrahedral: 4 bonding groups 0 lone pairs tetrahedral tetrahedral: 3 bonding groups 1 lone pair trigonal pyramidal tetrahedral: 2 bonding grops 2 lone pairs bent trigonal planar: 3 bonding groups 0 lone pairs trigonal planar trigonal planar: 2 bonding groups 1 lone pair bent trigonal planar: 1 bonding group 2 lone pairs linear if the electronic geometry is linear...the hybridization is sp if the electronic geometry is trigonal planar, the hybridization is... sp2 if the electronic geometry is tetrahedral, the hybridization is... sp3 if the electronic geometry is trigonal bypriamidal, the hybridization is... sp3d if the electronic geometry is octahedral, the hybridization is... sp3d2 sigma and pi bonds: every single bond contains... one sigma bond simga and pi bonds: every double bond contains... one sigma and one pi bond sigma and pi bonds: every triple bond contains... one sigma and two pi bonds arrhenius acid: coontain hydrogen and produce H+ in aqueous soltuioins arrhenius base: contain hydroxly groups and produce OH- in aqueous solutions H+ is actually H3O [H(H2O)n] bronsted lowry acid: donate protons bronsted lowry base: accept protons in the bronsted lowry theory, water is a base OR acid conjugate acid: add H and + conjugate base: remove H and add - lewis acids accept protons lewis bases donate protons what is the strongest acid that can exist in aqueous solution? the hydronium ion what is the leveling effect? all acids stonger than the hydronium ion react completely with water to produce the hydronium ion and their conjugate base. also applies to strong bases for ternary acids having the same central atom, the highest oxidation state of teh central atom is usually strongest/weakest acid strongest combustion means... reacts with O2 choose acid/base: have sour taste change colors of indicatiors turn cabbage juice red turn blue litmus red cause phenolphthalein clear react with metal oxides and metal hydroxides to from salts and waters react with salts of weaker acids to from the weaker acid and the salt of teh stronger acid conduct electricity as aqueous solutions acids choose acid/base bitter taste slipper feeling change color of indicators cabbage juice green red litmus blue react with acids to form salts (and usually water) conduct electricity as aqueous solutions bases