• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is science?
pursuit of knowledge through systematic methods p376
What is the sociology of science?
sociological perspective that examines how scientific knowledge develops p376
What is the scientific method?
objective, logical, and systematic way of collecting empirical data and arriving at conclusions p377
What is universalism?
a norm in scientific research that holds that research should be judged solely on the basis of quality p379
What is organized skepticism?
a norm in scientific research in which no scientific finding or theory is exempt from questioning p379
What is communalism?
a belief held among some scientists that all scientific knowledge should be made available to everyone in the scientific community p379
What is disinterestedness?
term in scientific research in which scientists should seek truth, not personal gain 379
What is the "Matthew effect"?
tendency for honors and recognition to go to those scientists who have already achieved recognition. On the other hand, they tend to be withheld from scientists who have not yet made their mark p383
What is a paradigm?
set of shared concepts, methods, and assumptions that make up the scientific reality at any point in time p385
Describe the development of science as a social institution.
Science emerged as a recognizable system of study in Greece during the 300s BC. In the 1300s, science was reborn in Europe as the result of several factors. In 1500s, a scientific revolution emerged. Industrialization led to the emergence of modern science in the late 1800s, early 1900s.
Compare and contrast the norms and realities of science.
Norms: universalism, organized skepticism, communalism, disinterestedness;
Realities: fraud, competition, Matthew effect, conflicting views of reality
What is mass media?
newspapers, magazines, books, televison, radio, films, and other forms of communication that reach large audiences without personal contact between the individuals sending the message and those receiving it p386, 113
What is an information society?
a society in which the exchange of information is the main social and economic activity p388
What is media convergence?
the idea that mass media are merging and are no longer separate entities p391
What is the knowledge-gap hypothesis?
idea that as new information enters society, wealthy and better-educated members acquire it at a faster rate than poor and less-educated people p394
What is the digital divide?
it is the gap between those with access to new technologies and those without p394
What is social capital?
social networks and the reciprocal norms associated with these networks that encourage people to do things for each other p396
What is the spiral of silence?
belief that as more people accept common opinions the people who disagree are less likely to voice their views p397
What is agenda setting?
the argument that the media sets the boundaries of public debate by deciding which issues will receive coverage and which will not p397
What are gatekeepers?
media executives, editors, or reporters who can open or close the "gate" on a particular news story p397
What are opinion leaders?
respected individuals in the community p397
List in chronological order the major intellectual and technological innovations that marked the institutionalization of mass media.
writing and paper, printing press, Industrial Ages, computer/information society
What types of media are used to share the news, opinion pieces and editorials?
print, audio, visual, online
What types of media are used to advertise consumer products?
print, audio, visual, online
How does the news influence the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs of people and groups?
agenda setting by gatekeepers, spiral of silence
How does advertising influence the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs of people and groups?
shapes people's views of society and what to buy, might keep people's minds off important issues and focused on consumerism
Describe and give examples of some recent issues concerning mass media.
examples include the mass media's influence on children, effect on civic and social life, and power in shaping public opinion
What four factors contributed to the rebirth of science in Europe?
the Renaissance, printing press, Age of Exploration, and Protestant Reformation
How did world exploration influence societal behavior and the growth of scientific learning? (2 major ways)
First, advances in astronomy and mathematics were needed to assist navigation. Second, explorers brought back strange plants, animals, and diseases that sparked scientific creativity.
What three forces combined to encourage the development of the urban newspaper?
urbanization, rising literacy, and advertising
How do age, education, and income affect media consumption?
Young people are more likely to go to the movies less likely to read newspapers. Newspaper and book readership increase with age, education and income. People with higher incomes are more likely to have cable and Internet access.
What functions do the media serve?
keeping track of what is happening in the world, interpreting information, transmitting cultural values, and entertaining people
According to conflict sociologists, how does the knowledge gap help maintain social inequality?
As new information enters society, wealthy and better-educated members acquire it at a faster rate than poor and less-educated people.
According to Robert Putnam, how has television led to a decline in the social capital?
It has led to less participation in civic and social activities.
According to conflict sociologists, how does the knowledge gap help maintain social inequality?
society, wealthy and better-educated members acquire it at a faster rate than poor and less-educated people.
What effect did the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution have on the development of modern science?
The Enlightenment supported reason over religion, and its main tool was the scientific method. The central purpose of industrialization was progreess, and science was seen as a tool of progress.
What functions do the media serve?
keeping track of what is happening in the world, interpreting information, transmitting cultural values, and entertaining people
What is social capital?
social networks and the reciprocal norms associated with these networks that encourage people to do things for each other
What have been two results of pressure for the television industry to do something about violent programming?
1. A rating system was establshed in 1997, and 2. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 requires all new televisions to hav a V-chip.
What is a V-chip?
It is a device required to be added to all new televisions since 1996. It allows the viewer to block reception of unwanted programming.