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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do the textbook authors use to define the eastern border of Europe?
the former Soviet Union border
the eastern border of the Baltic states, Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria
What are serious environmental issues in Europe?
Acid rain, water pollution, air pollution, Coastal pollution
What enviromental matters has the European Union taken lead on?
reduced energy use, recycling, waste management, and sustainable resource use.
European landforms can be organized into four general topographic categories
Central Uplands,Western Highlands, European Lowland, and the Alpine mountain system
Although Europe extends far into the northern latitudes, it has a climate 5 to 10 °F warmer than other locations in comparable latitudes. What is responsible for this climatic anomaly?
the North Atlantic current
Europe remains a maritime region with strong ties to its surrounding seas. Even some landlocked countries have access to the seas through:
a network of navigable rivers and canals.
reclaimed agricultural areas, many at or below sea level, along the Dutch coast that have been diked and drained
slow and, in some countries, negative natural growth
A characteristic of Europe's population
While __________ has Europe's largest population, __________ has Europe's highest population density
Germany, Monaco
Migrants into Western Europe include
conomic migrants from Eastern Europe, war refugees, job seekers from former European colonies, guestworkers from other world regions.
reduced border formalities between the signatory countries but also created increasingly restrictive controls at the external borders
The Schengen Agreement
The __________ urban landscape is one of narrow, winding streets, crowded with three- or four-story masonry buildings with little setback from the street and few open spaces, except around churches or public buildings
Slavic,Minor Indo-European, Germanic, Romance
Major language groups in Europe
Italian, Rumanian, Spanish, and French languages are all part of what language subfamily?
Romance Languages
True or False: There are approximately 2.25 million Basque living in northern Spain and southwestern France, Within Spain, the Basque have a degree of autonomy, including having their own parliament, The separatist ETA is a group which espouses Basque independence, and has used violence and terrorism to do so, The language of the Basque, Euskara, is believed to be one of the earliest languages of Europe.
A section in Eastern Europe in what is now eastern Poland, Belarus, and western Ukraine where Jews sought refuge
Jewish Pale
Catholic insistence on a closer relationship, and possible unification, with Ireland, the need for an agreeable form of political power-sharing by Catholics and Protestants, Protestant insistence that their relationship with the United Kingdom be honored,
Major issues at the heart of peace talks in Northern Ireland
When a state claims territory outside its own borders because people of the same ethnicity as they are live there
The most visible symbol of the Cold War in Europe was the
Berlin Wall
The fragmented geopolitical processes involved with small-scale independent movements and mini-nationalism as it develops along ethnic fault lines
EU quotas on on the banana imports from U.S companies, 100% tax by U.S on French designer hangbags, Scottish cashmere, and French Roquefort cheese
Elements of the US-European banana war.
Forerunning organizations that became part of the EU
Currency of the European Monetary Union?
The Euro
What best describes the economic transition in eastern Europe since 1991?
Geopolitical prcoess of fragmentation of larger states into smaller ones through independence of smaller regions oand ethnic groups. Takes its name from fromt he geopolitical fabric of the Balan region.
The agglomeration of small, privately owned agricultural parcels into larger, state-owned farms. This was a central component of communism in Eastern Europe and teh Soviet Union.
based on the Greek Alphabet and used by slavic languages heavily influenced by the Eastern Orthodox church. Atrributed to the missionary work of St. Cyril in the ninth century.
Cyrillic alphabet
flooded, glacially carved valleys; In europe, found primarily along Norway's western coast.
Unique climate, found in only five locations int he world that is characterized by hot, dry summers with very little rainfall. Located on the west side of continents. , between 30 and 40 degrees latitude.
Mediterranean climate
The process of moving formerly state-owned firms into the contemporary capitalist private sector.
An array of non aligned or firendly states that "buffer" a larger country from invasion.
buffer zone
The communist agency that coordinated economic planning and development between the Soviet Union and satellite countries in Eastern Europe.
Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA)
The 11 states that form the European Monetay Union, with its commonc currency, the euro. The monetay unit completely replaced national currencies in july 2002.
Workers from eastern europe's agriculture periphery- primarily Greece, Turkey, southern Italy, and the former Yugoslavia. Solicited to work in Germany France, Sweden and Switzerland during the chronic labor shortages in Europes boom years (1950s to 1970s
guest worker
Moderate climate with cool summers and mild winters that is heavily influenced by maritime conditions. Such climates are usually found on the weest coasts of continets between latitudes of 45 to 50 degrees.
Marine west coast climate
Hilly topographic features that mark the path of Pleistocene Glaciers. They are composed of material eroded and carried by glaciers and ice sheets.
Urabn landscape generally constructed during the period from 1500 to 1800 that are characterized by wide, ceremonial boulevards, large monumental structures (palaces, public squares, churches), and oscentatious housing for the urban elite. A comon landscape feature in European cities.
Renaissance-Baroque landscape
The widespread movement in wester Europe away from regular participation and engagement with traditional organized religions such as Protestantism or Catholicism.
The ideological struggle between the US and the Soviet Union that was conducted between 1946 and 1991.
Cold War
Current association of 25 European countries that are joined together in an agenda of economic, political, and cutlural integration.
European Union
A term coined by British leader Winston CHurchill during the cold war that defined the western border of soviert power in Europe. The notorious berlin wall was a concrete manifestation of this term.
Iron Curtain
Urban ladscapes from 900 to 1500 CE characterized by narrow, winding streets, three-four story structures, with little open space except for the market square. These landscapes are still found in teh centers of many European cities.
medieval landscape
Barren, mostly flat lands of soutnern Scandinavia that were heavily eroded by Pleistocen ice sheets. In many places, this landscape is characterized by large expanses of bedrock with little or no soil that resulted from glacial erosion.
shield landscape
Minor political subunits created in the former soviet union and designed to recognize the special status of minortiy groups wihtin existing republics.
autonomous areas
A faction within the Russian Communist movement led by Lenin that successfully took controlof the country in 1917.
Russian term for dark, fertile soil, often associated with grassland settings in Southern Russia and Ukraine
chernozem soils
A loose political union of former Soviet republics (without the Baltic states) establishhed in 1992 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
A russian country cottage used especially in the summer.
a loose confederation of self-governing chruches in eastern Europe and Russia that are historically linked to Byzantine traditions and to the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul)
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A collection of soviet-era labor camps for political prisoners, made famous by writer Aleksander Solzehitsyn.
Gulag Archipelago
A program of partially implemented, planned economic reforms (or restructuring) undertakn during th Gorbachev years in the soviet Union designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient and responsive to consumer needs
A policy of the Soviet union to spread Russian settlers and influence to non-Russian areas of the coutnry.
The confierous forest zone south of the Tundra, dominates a large portion of the Russian interior.
Artic region with a short growing season in which vegetation is limited to low shrubs, grasses, and flowering herbs.
Key central Siberian railroad connection completeed in the soviet era (1984) which links the Yenisey and Amur rivers and parallels the Trans-Siberian railroad.
Baikul-Amur Mainline RR (BAM)
An economic system in which the sate sets production targets and controls the means of production.
centralized economic planning
A group of peoples in eastern Europe and Russian who speak slavic languages, a distinctive branch of INdo-European language family.
Slavic peoples
The process where nuclear weapons are taken from an area and dismantled.
A portion of a country's territory that lies outisde of its contiguous land area.
A cold climate condition where the ground remains permanently frozen.
Key southern Siberian railroad connection completed during the Russian empire (1904) that links European Russia with the Russian Far East terminus of Vladivostok
Trans-Siberian Railroad
Highly mobile slavic-speaking Christians of the southern Russian steppe who were pivotal in expanding Russian unfluence in sixteenth and sevententh centure Siberai.
A policy of greater political openness initiated during the 1980s by Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev
Large, state-constructed urban housing projects built during the Soviet period int he 1970s and 1980s
a russian term for acidic soils of limited fertility, typically found in northern forest enviroments
podzol soils
an artistic style once popular in the soviet union that was associated with realistic depictions of workers in their patriotic stuggles against capitalism
socialist realism
A russian term for Caesar or ruler, the authoritarian rulers of the Russian empire before its collapse in the 1917 revolution.
What former Soviet Republics is included in the textbook's delineation of the Russian Domain?
Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia.
Since the 1980s, Siberia may have lost more forests through lumbering and pollution than the Brazilian rainforest, The magnitude of Russia's environmental challenges is so great that they may affect global climate patterns, Environmental movements exist but have little political clout, Widespread damage resulted from Soviet-era industrialization.
Characteristics of Russia's natural enviroment.
The acidic soils found in Belarus and central portions of European Russia are called _____ soils. Further south, more fertile "black earth" soils are called _____.
podzol; chernozem
land damaged by mining, air and water pollution, deforestation, and radioactive contamination.
Environmental issues in the Russian domain
Northern Russia is covered by a vast coniferous forest known as
Dry, Polar, Continental Midlatitude, Mild Midlatitude
Climates in the Russian Domain
Settlement east of the Ural Mountains is oriented
along the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
A large out-migration of followers of what religion began following the collapse of the Soviet Union?
While Moscow is the capital of Russia today and was the capital of the Soviet Union, the capital city of the Russian Empire was:
St. Petersburg.
Most of the major cities in the Russian domain lie along _____ or along the _____.
Large rivers; Trans-Siberian Railroad
Kaliningrad is an exclave of which country in this region?
International music-industry corporations that recently opened operations in Russia
uring the Soviet era, voluntary and involuntary resettlement of Russians into non-Russian areas was known as:
During the Soviet era, a number of planned residential zones were built in newly urban areas. Large massed blocks of apartment buildings intended to form self-contained communities were called:
As the Russian Empire grew, it assimilated or allied with all of the group
Cossacks, Tatars, Varangians, Armenians.
Russian President Putin has reacted to devolutionary forces by:
increasing centralized political control.
Russia's organized crime syndicates are estimated to control approximately _______ percent of Russia's private economy.
Russia has ongoing territorial disputes with:
China and Japan
What cities lie within a major manufacturing region in the Russian Domain
Volgograd. Donetsk.
a shortage of vaccines, rapid growth of HIV infection rates in Russia and Ukraine, toxic environmental conditions, chronic illnesses, especially those related to lifestyle.
elements of the care crisis
Where are most of Russia's natural gas reserves?