Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/85

Click to flip

85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Selenium plays a role in all of the following except
A.
glutathione peroxidase activity.
B.
thyroid function.
C.
immune function.
D.
regulation of fluid status.
D. regulation of fluid status
Selenium toxicity would most likely result from
A.
high intakes of seafood.
B.
high intakes of grain products grown on selenium-rich soil.
C.
excessive use of fortified foods.
D.
dietary supplementation.
D.
dietary supplementation.
Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of
A.
vitamin E.
B.
vitamin A.
C.
selenium.
D.
vitamin C.
C. Selenium
Which of the following is not accounted for in the calculation of RAEs?
A.
Alpha-carotene
B.
Beta-carotene
C.
Lutein
D.
Preformed vitamin A
C. Lutein
Typical North American diets
A.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.
B.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin A.
C.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin C.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
A.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.
The bioavailabilty of carotenoids is affected by
A.
exposure to acid.
B.
consumption with meat products.
C.
cooking.
D.
soil mineral content.
C. Cooking
Replacing animal fats with plant oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also increase
A.
vitamin C intake.
B.
selenium intake.
C.
vitamin E intake.
D.
vitamin A intake.
C. Vitamin E Intake
Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in
A.
collagen synthesis.
B.
carnitine synthesis.
C.
neurotransmitter synthesis.
D.
antioxidant reactions.
A. Collagen Synthesis
The bioavailabilty of carotenoids is affected by
A.
cooking.
B.
soil mineral content.
C.
exposure to acid.
D.
consumption with meat products.
A. cooking
Vitamin C enhances the absorption of
A.
vitamin A.
B.
iron.
C.
vitamin E.
D.
zinc.
B. iron
Which fat-soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells because it promotes mucus production?
A.
vitamin C
B.
vitamin E
C.
vitamin D
D.
vitamin A
D. vitamin A
Vitamin A supplements are needed by
A.
pregnant women.
B.
people with severe fat malabsorption.
C.
anyone trying to fend off a winter cold.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
B. people with severe fat malabsorption.
The selenium content of the typical North American diet is
A.
adequate, due to widespread fortification of foods with selenium.
B.
inadequate, due to low intake of whole grain products.
C.
inadequate, due to low intake of fruits and vegetables.
D.
adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.
D.
adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.
Beta-carotene is
A.
one form of vitamin E.
B.
a precursor to vitamin A.
C.
one form of vitamin A.
D.
a precursor to vitamin E.
B. a precursor to vitamin A.
Which of the following is true about selenium?
A.
It is needed for insulin formation and use
B.
It acts as a cofactor in protein metabolism
C.
It participates in antioxidant reactions
D.
An excess can cause hypertension
It participates in antioxidant reactions
A.
sweet potatoes, which contain beta-carotene, a cancer-fighting antioxidant.
B.
a granola bar with added psyllium, a soluble fiber that may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
C.
milk enriched with CLA, a dietary oil that may improve immune function.
D. a granola bar with added calcium to improve bone health.
D. a granola bar with added calcium to improve bone health.
Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and DNA inside cells, from damage?
A.
Vitamin D
B.
Vitamin K
C.
Niacin
D.
Vitamin E
D. Vitamin E
Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?
A.
Vegetarians
B.
Smokers
C.
Older adults
D.
Alcoholics
B. smokers
Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and
DNA inside cells, from damage?
A.
Vitamin D
B.
Vitamin K
C.
Vitamin E
D.
Niacin
C. Vitamin E
The safest way to meet vitamin A needs is by
A.
consuming a variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables.
B.
heavy use of fortified foods.
C.
consuming organ meats on a daily basis.
D.
use of a vitamin A supplement.
A. consuming a variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables
Antioxidants
A.
damage cell membranes.
B.
donate electrons to free radicals.
C.
are reduced in chemical reactions.
D.
promote the formation of free radicals.
B. donate electrons to free radicals
Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?
A.
Salmon
B.
Raisins
C.
Special K
D.
Tuna
D. tuna
Typical North American diets
A.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.
B.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin A.
C.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin C.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
A.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.
Free radical damage has been implicated in
A.
sinus infections.
B.
sickle cell disease.
C.
atherosclerosis.
D.
HIV.
C.
atherosclerosis.
Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?
A.
Carotenoids are found in animal foods
B.
Carotenoids can be converted retinoids
C.
Retinoids are converted to carotenoids
D.
Retinoids are found in plant foods
B. Carotenoids can be converted retinoids
Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?
A.
Fat content
B.
Price
C.
Texture
D.
Color
d. color
Night blindness results from
A.
an inability of the pupil to dilate in low light.
B.
drying of the cornea of the eye.
C.
dysfunction of rod cells in the retina of the eye.
D.
dysfunction of cone cells in the retina of the eye.
C.
dysfunction of rod cells in the retina of the eye.
Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?
A.
vitamin C
B.
vitamin A
C.
vitamin D
D.
vitamin E
B. vitamin A
All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except
A.
most adverse effects disappear after doses stop.
B.
one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.
C.
one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food.
D.
fetal malformation can occur.
fetal malformation can occur.
The main form of vitamin E in the body is
A.
beta-tocopherol.
B.
delta-tocopherol.
C.
gamma-tocopherol.
D.
alpha-tocopherol.
alpha-tocopherol.
Selenium toxicity would most likely result from
A.
excessive use of fortified foods.
B.
high intakes of grain products grown on selenium-rich soil.
C.
dietary supplementation.
D.
high intakes of seafood.
c. dietary supplementation.
The selenium content of the typical North American diet is
A.
inadequate, due to low intake of fruits and vegetables.
B.
adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.
C.
inadequate, due to low intake of whole grain products.
D.
adequate, due to widespread fortification of foods with selenium.
B.
adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.
Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of
A.
zoochemicals.
B.
phytochemicals.
C.
toxic chemicals.
D.
provitamin A.
B. phytochemicals
Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?
a. Color
b. Price
c. Texture
d. Fat content
A. Color
Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called
a. xerophthalmia.
b. cachexia.
c. dysphagia.
d. apnea.
a. xerophthalmia.
Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint related to the role of vitamin C in
a. neurotransmitter synthesis.
b. carnitine synthesis.
c. antioxidant reactions.
d. collagen synthesis.
d. collagen synthesis.
Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content North American diet?
a. Beef: It's What's for Dinner
b. Got Milk?
c. Five-A-Day
d. Fight Bac!
c. Five-A-Day
Free radical damage has been implicated in
a. sinus infections.
b. sickle cell disease.
c. atherosclerosis.
d. HIV.
c. atherosclerosis.
Vitamin C enhances the absorption of
a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. vitamin E.
d. vitamin A.
A. Iron
A. regulation of fluid status.
B. glutathione peroxidase activity.
C. immune function.
D. thyroid function.
A. regulation of fluid status.
Which of the following is true about selenium?
A. An excess can cause hypertension
B. It participates in antioxidant reactions
C. It acts as a cofactor in protein metabolism
D. It is needed for insulin formation and use
B. It participates in antioxidant reactions
Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except
A. lead to accumulation in the liver.
B. cure colds and prevent cancer.
C. lead to debilitating side effects.
D. result in toxicity.
B. cure colds and prevent cancer.
_____ milligram(s) of provitamin A is (are) equivalent to 1 milligram of preformed vitamin A.
A. 12
B. 6
C. 3
D. 1
A. 12
Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?
A. Salmon
B. Raisins
C. Special K
D. Tuna
D. Tuna
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
A. coenzyme.
B. hormone.
C. enzyme.
D. antioxidant.
D. antioxidant.
Vitamin C enhances the absorption of
A. vitamin A.
B. iron.
C. vitamin E.
D. zinc.
B. iron.
Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?
A. Potatoes
B. Orange
C. Cauliflower
D. Apricot
D. Apricot
The main form of vitamin E in the body is
A. alpha-tocopherol.
B. gamma-tocopherol.
C. delta-tocopherol.
D. beta-tocopherol.
A. alpha-tocopherol
When a molecule loses an electron in a chemical reaction, the molecule has been
A. metabolized.
B. induced.
C. oxidized.
D. reduced.
C. oxidized
Replacing animal fats with plant oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also increase
A. selenium intake.
B. vitamin C intake.
C. vitamin A intake.
D. vitamin E intake.
D. vitamin E intake.
Typical North American diets
A.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.
B.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin A.
C.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin C.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
A.
fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.
Selenium plays a role in all of the following except
A.
immune function.
B.
regulation of fluid status.
C.
thyroid function.
D.
glutathione peroxidase activity.
b. regulation of fluid status
The selenium content of the typical North American diet is
A.
adequate, due to widespread fortification of foods with selenium.
B.
inadequate, due to low intake of whole grain products.
C.
inadequate, due to low intake of fruits and vegetables.
D.
adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.
d. adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.
Vitamin A supplements are needed by
A.
pregnant women.
B.
people with severe fat malabsorption.
C.
anyone trying to fend off a winter cold.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
b. people with severe fat malabsorption
Vitamin C enhances the absorption of
A.
zinc.
B.
vitamin E.
C.
vitamin A.
D.
iron.
d. iron
To bolster immune function, evidence supports
A.
consuming 5 - 9 servings of a variety of fruits and vegetables per day.
B.
consuming a variety of nuts and seeds.
C.
taking megadoses of vitamin C supplements.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
a. consuming 5 - 9 servings of a variety of fruits and vegetables per day.
The most bioavailable source of vitamin E is
A.
plant oil.
B.
fish oil.
C.
alpha-tocopherol supplements.
D.
mixed-tocopherol supplements.
A. plant oil
Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?
A. Broccoli
B. Liver
C. Pork chop
D. Chicken breast
b. liver
5.Dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of
A. vitamin E.
B. vitamin A.
C. vitamin C.
D. vitamin D.
B. Vitamin A
Replacing animal fats with plant oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also increase
A. selenium intake.
B. vitamin A intake.
C. vitamin C intake.
D. vitamin E intake.
D. Vitamin E intake
To bolster immune function, evidence supports
A. consuming 5 - 9 servings of a variety of fruits and vegetables per day.
B. consuming a variety of nuts and seeds.
C. taking megadoses of vitamin C supplements.
D. All of these choices are correct.
A. consuming 5 - 9 servings of a variety of fruits and vegetables per day.
Beta-carotene is
A. one form of vitamin E.
B. a precursor to vitamin E.
C. one form of vitamin A.
D. a precursor to vitamin A.
D. a precursor to vitamin A.
Which fat-soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells because it promotes mucus production?
A. vitamin D
B. vitamin A
C. vitamin E
D. vitamin C
B. vitamin A
The best way to improve the body's ability to cope with free radicals is to
A. increase intake of processed meats.
B. exercise at high altitudes.
C. consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.
D. take antioxidant supplements.
C. consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.
Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?
A. Carotenoids are found in animal foods
B. Retinoids are found in plant foods
C. Retinoids are converted to carotenoids
D. Carotenoids can be converted retinoids
D. Carotenoids can be converted retinoids
1) Consuming carotenoids may reduce the risk for all of the following except antioxidant functions and
A. osteoporosis.
B. cataracts.
C. age-related macular degeneration.
D. cardiovascular disease.
a. osteoporosis
4) An atom's nucleus has
A. a neutral charge.
B. a positive charge.
C. a negative charge.
D. unpaired electrons.
B. a positive charge.
6) Which of the following is an antioxidant?
A. Vitamin C
B. Vitamin B-6
C. Biotin
D. Niacin
A. Vitamin C
7) Most vitamin A is stored in the
A. kidneys.
B. small intestine.
C. liver.
D. adipose tissue.
c. liver
9) An average serving of which food provides the most vitamin A?
A. Yellow squash
B. Egg
C. Liver
D. Apricot
c. liver
10) Glutathione peroxidase
A. converts water into oxygen and hydrogen.
B. converts peroxides into water.
C. converts alcohol into peroxides.
D. converts glucose into fructose.
B. converts peroxides into water.
20) Dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of
A. vitamin E.
B. vitamin A.
C. vitamin C.
D. vitamin D.
B. vitamin A.
24) Replacing animal fats with plant oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also increase
A. selenium intake.
B. vitamin A intake.
C. vitamin C intake.
D. vitamin E intake.
D. vitamin E intake.
40) The best way to improve the body's ability to cope with free radicals is to
A. increase intake of processed meats.
B. exercise at high altitudes.
C. consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.
D. take antioxidant supplements.
C. consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.
45) Which of the following groups is at high risk for negative consequences of marginal vitamin E status?
A. Vegetarians
B. Preterm infants
C. Athletes
D. Older Adults
B. Preterm infants
46) In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by
A. lycopene.
B. chlorophyll.
C. lutein.
D. anthocyanin.
B. chlorophyll.
47) George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?
A. Spinach
B. Salmon
C. Pears
D. Potato
A. spinach
48) The vitamin C content of foods can be decreased by
A. exposure to heat.
B. leaching into cooking water.
C. exposure to oxygen.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. All of these choices are correct.
49) Glutathione peroxidase
A. converts water into oxygen and hydrogen.
B. converts peroxides into water.
C. converts alcohol into peroxides.
D. converts glucose into fructose.
b. converts peroxides into water
50) Which of the following snacks provides the most vitamin C?
A. Vanilla ice cream topped with sliced strawberries
B. Whole wheat crackers with peanut butter
C. Baked apples with cinnamon and brown sugar
D. Grilled cheese sandwich
a. vanilla ice cream topped with sliced strawberries
54) A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is
A. iron.
B. manganese.
C. selenium.
D. sulfur.
c. selenium
55) Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of
A. niacin.
B. riboflavin.
C. vitamin C.
D. thiamin.
c. vitamin c
56) Free radicals
A. are the result of an inborn error of metabolism.
B. are generated by normal metabolic processes.
C. have no beneficial roles in the body.
D. reduce inflammation.
B. are generated by normal metabolic processes.
1. Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it
A. acts as a blood thinner.
B. prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.
C. relaxes blood vessel walls.
D. prevents sodium retention.
B. prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.
Formation and maintenance of collagen requires
A. thiamin
B. Vitamin C
C. Pantothenic Acid
D. Folate
B. Vitamin C