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80 Cards in this Set

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What are Organs of the Nervous System?
1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord
3. Nerves
4. Receptors of Sense Organs
There are four
What are the Divisions of the Nervous System
1. Central Nervous System (CNS) Spinal Cord and Brain
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All nervous tissue outside the CNS
There are two
What is the Structure of the Typical Nueron?
Nueral (Nervous) Tissue

1. Nuerons-individual cells that send and recieve signals
- basic functional unit of the nervous system
contains two kinds of cells
What are the main structures of a Nueron?
1. Cell body - contains Nucleus and all organelles
There are three structures
What are the main structures of a Nueron?
Dendrites
-highly branched with many fine processes
-Conduct impulses toward cell body of the nueron
There are three structures
What are the main structures of a Nueron?
Axon
-long structure off cell body
-conduct impulses AWAY FROM cell body of nueron
-May be covered with a Myelin Sheath
-gaps in the Myelin are called "Nodes of Ranvier"
There are three structures
What is the Structure of the Typical Nueron?
Nueral (Nervous) Tissue

2. Nueroglia (glial) Cells-cells that support and protect nuerons
contains two kinds of cells
What functions are nuerons classified into?
Sensory Nuerons
-conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain
there are three
What functions are nuerons classified into?
Motor Nuerons
-conduct impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
there are three
What functions are nuerons classified into?
Internuerons
-carry impulses from sensory nuerons to motor nuerons
there are three
What are the three main types of Nueroglial (glial) Cell of the CNS?
Astrocytes
-star-shaped cells that anchor small blood vessels to nuerons
star-shaped
What are the three main types of Nueroglial (glial) Cell of the CNS?
Microglia
-small cells that are housed in brain tissue, phagocytic cells
housed
What are the three main types of Nueroglial (glial) Cell of the CNS?
Oligodendrocites
-form myelin sheaths on axons in the CNS
form
What is a main type of glial cell of the PNS?
Schwann Cells
-form myelin sheaths of axons in the PNS
Swan
What is Multiple Sclerosis?
Autoimmune disorder causing destruction of myelin sheaths in CNS
Symptoms
muscular weakness, abnormal sensations or double vision
Just for "FYI"
What is a nerve?
Bundle of axons surrounded by connective tissue
What are the three Connective Tissue Layers?
Epineurium
-outer layer
-surrounds entire nerve
What are the three Connective Tissue Layers?
Perineurium
-middle layer
-surrounds a group (fascicle) of nerve fibers
What are the three Connective Tissue Layers?
Endoneurium
-inner layer
-surrounds indiviual nuerons
What are the three types of Axons?
Type A Fibers
-large diameter, myelinated
(fastest)
What are the three types of Axons?
Type B Fibers
-medium diameter, myelinated
What are the three types of Axons?
Type C Fibers
-small diameter, unmyelinated (slowest)
The speed of impulse conduction depends on the axon of the nerve it is traveling on
-Lareger diameter makes the conduction faster
-Myelination makes the conduction faster.
What is a nueral reflex?
A Reflex is a fast, predictable, automatic response.
Where do reflexes occur?
They occur in the grey matter
What are most reflexes controlled by.
Most reflexes are controlled by the spinal cord only.
What are five components of Reflex Arc?
1. receptor
2. sensory nueron
3. integrating center
4. motor nueron
5. effector
What are the 5 Steps in a Nueral Reflex?
Step 1: A stimulus activates a receptor.
ex: pain, hot cold, tickle..
What are the 5 Steps in a Nueral Reflex?
Step 2: The receptor activates a sensory nueron.
This conducts an impulse to the spinal cord or brain.
What are the 5 Steps in a Nueral Reflex?
Step 3: The message is processed by an interneuron in the brain or spinal cord.
What are the 5 Steps in a Nueral Reflex?
Step 4: The internueron activates a motor nueron
This conducts an impulse to a muscle or gland
What are the 5 Steps in a Nueral Reflex?
Step 5: An effector is stimulated.
A muscle contracts or a gland secretes a product.
The Human Brain
-Contains almost 98% of the body's nueral tissue
-Average weight, about 1.4kg
(about 3 pounds)
What are the Main Regions of the Brain?
1. Brain Stem
2. Diencephalon
3. cerebellum
4. Cerebrum
What three parts does the Brain Stem include?
1. Midbrain (mesencephalon)
2. Pons
3. Medulla Oblongata
What are the Functions of the Brain Stem?
-Connects the brain to the spinal cord.
What are the Functions of the Brain Stem?
-Relays information to higher brain centers.
What are the Functions of the Brain Stem?
-Regulates reflex centers of the brain to control vital functions.
ex: heart rate, respiration, blood pressure
Where is the Diencephalon located?
Located under the Cerebrum and Cerebellum
What are the main divisions of the Diencephalon?
Thalamus and Hypothalamas
What is the function of the Thalamas?
-relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex
-produces some emotions of pleasantness or unpleasantness associated with sensations.
What is the function of the Hypothalamas?
-hormone production
-contains centers for controlling appetite, wakefulness, pleasure, etc.
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
-Controls repetitive body movements and coordinated muscle movements
ex: posture and fine motor control
Cerebellum
-Second largest part of the brain.
-Divided into two halves.
What are the functions of the Cerebrum?
Mental processes such as sensations, consciousness, memory and voluntary control of movements.
What are disorders of the Cerebellum?
-Ataxia
-damage from trauma or stroke
-intoxication (temporary disturbance)
-disturbs muscle coordination
Name the Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
-about 18" long
-1/2" wide
-Begins at the medulla oblongata
-Ends between vertebrate L1 and L2
What three structures make up the Inferior end of the Spinal Cord?
Conus Medullaris
-cone shaped end of spinal cord around L2
What three structures make up the Inferior end of the Spinal Cord?
Caudae Equina
-horse's tail
-lowest spinal nerves
What three structures make up the Inferior End of the Spinal Cord?
Filum Terminale
-Final thread of the spinal cord
-Stabilizes end of spinal cord
What is the Gray matter of the Spinal Cord?
-shaped like the letter H or a butterfly
-contains nueron cell bodies & unmyelinated axons
What is the white matter of the Spinal Cord?
-contains myelinated and unmyelinated axons
-carries impulses to and from the brain
What serves as protection for the Spinal Cord?
-vertebrate
-meninges
-cerebrospinal fluid
Meninges
-protect the spinal cord

-carry blood supply
Meningitis
-viral or bacterial infection of the meninges
What are the three Meningeal Layers?
Dura mater
-outer layer of spinal cord
What are the three Meningeal Layers?
Arachnoid mater
-middle meningeal layer
What are the three Meningeal Layers?
Pia mater
-inner meningeal layer
What are the three Inter-layer Spaces?
Epidural Space
-Space above the dura mater
-contains connective and adipose tissue for cushion
-Anesthetic injection site
What are the three Inter-layer Spaces?
Subdural space
-between arachnoid mater and dura mater
What are the three Inter-layer Spaces?
Subarachnoid space
-between arachnoid mater and pla mater
-filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
-Spinal Tap withdrawals fluid from this space
How many pairs of Spinal Nerves are there?
31 pairs of spinal nerves connected to the spinal cord
What are the types and locations of spinal nerves?
8 pairs of cervical nerves
(C1 to C8)
What are the types and locations of spinal nerves?
12 pairs of thoracic nerves
(T1 to T12)
What are the types and locations of spinal nerves?
5 pairs of lumbar nerves
(L1 to L5)
What are the types and locations of spinal nerves?
5 pairs of sachral nerves
(S1 to S5)
What are the types and locations of spinal nerves?
1 pair of coccygeal nerves
How nany pairs of Cranial Nerves are there?
12 pairs connected to the brain
What is an autonomic Nervous System?
-made up of motor nuerons that conduct impulses from the the central nervous system to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glands
-regulates the body's involuntary functions
What are the two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Sympathetic Division
-turns on only during exertion, stress or emergency
-called the "Fight or Flight" nervous system
-readies body for crisis
-stimulates tissue metabolism
-increases alertness
What are the two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Parasympathetic Division
-controls during resting conditions
-"Called the "Rest and Digest" nervous system
-stimulates visceral activity (digestion)
-conserves energy and promotes sedentary activities
State the Sympathetic "Fight ot Flight" Responses

(1-4)
1. Heightened mental alertness
2. Increased metabolic rate
3. Increased respiratory rate
4. Respiratory passageways dilate
State the Sympathetic "Fight ot Flight" Responses

(5-7)
5. Increased herat rate and blood pressure
6 Sweat glands activated
7. Reduced digestive and urinary functions
State the Parasympathetic "Rest and Digest" Responses
(1-4)
1. Increases secretion by digestive glands
2. Increases smooth muscle activity
3. Stimulates defecation
4. Stimulates contraction of the bladder
State the Parasympathetic "Rest and Digest" Responses
(5-7)
5. Constriction of respiratory passageways
6. Constriction of pupils
7. Reduction in heart rate
What are three types of nuerons of the Sympathetic Division?
Preganglionic Fibers
-leave spinal cord between segments T1 and L2
What are three types of nuerons of the Sympathetic Division?
Ganglionic Nuerons
-in ganglia near vertebral column and in adrenal glands
What are three types of nuerons of the Sympathetic Division?
Postganglionic Fibers
-from ganglia to target organs
Autonomic Nervous System
-many organs are doubly innervated
"dual innervation"
What is an example of oppsite actions of the same organ?
The sympathetic division stimulates the heart

The parastmpathetic division inhibits the heart