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90 Cards in this Set

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What documents are contained in the patient's chart?
lab results
x-ray reports
consents
history & physical
allergies
This must be signed before any surgical procedure can be performed.
Informed consent.
What are some of the risks listed in the informed consent?
bleeding
infection
death
brain injury
thrombosis
When is a patient not allowed to sign an informed consent?
After administration of preoperative medication or when patient is mentally impaired.
If the patient cannot give informed consent, who can?
The next of kin or two surgeons in an emergency or a witnessed telephone consent from next of kin.
Nail polish should be removed so as not to interfere with this.
Pulse oximeter
Preoperative meds are administered why?
to sedate
decrease secretions
to prevent allergic reactions
NPO means?
nothing by mouth
These use pressure to prevent venous stasis.
antiembolic stockings
venous compression devices
How is a patient identified?
By asking them their name and by the ID bracelet.
How is a surgical patient transported to the OR?
on a gurney, their own hospital bed or a wheelchair-a child may be carried.
When pushing a gurney, which end goes first?
Feet first unless into an elevator, then head first.
If a patient is left alone in the hall or holding area, what could you be charged with?
Abondoning a patient
Where should the safety strap be placed for abdomonal surgery?
Placed 2" proximal to the knees
What is meant by tucking the arms?
Securing the patient's arms to their side using the draw sheet
What injury can result from improper positioning of the arms?
Ulnar nerve damage
When is the patient positioned?
After the administration of anesthesia.
How are the legs moved during positioning?
Slowly and simultaneously.
How many personnel are required to safely move an immobile patient?
4
This is done to protect pressure points and bony prominences.
Padding
Who directs the moving of the patient during positioning?
The anesthesia provider.
How are the armboards positioned?
Must not extend beyond a 90 degree angle.
What are the three basic positions?
supine
prone
lateral
Is it ever permissable for the patient to cross their legs during positioning?
no never
What part of the foot needs padding?
The heels
Another name for the supine position is?
dorsal recumbent
During the induction phase of anesthesia, what position is the patient typically in?
supine
Regions accessible while in the supine position?
pelvis upper extremity
anterior lower extremity
abdomen
chest
shoulder
head and neck
What is the Trendelenburg position?
supine with the head lower than the feet
What is the Reverse Trendelenburg position?
supine with the head higher than the feet
What body regions may be accessed using the Trendelenburg position?
pelvis
lower abdomen
What body regions may be accessed using the Reverse Trendelenburg position?
upper abdomen
head and neck
Describe Fowler's position.
Supine with the legs lowered and the body section raised.
Body regions accessed while in the Fowler's position.
breast
head and neck
shoulder
These are used to position the patient in lithotomy position.
stirrups or candy canes
Body regions accessed while in lithotomy position.
perineom
anus and rectum
vagina
urethra
The patient is anesthesized on another table or gurney prior to being placed in this position.
prone
Body regions accessed while in prone position.
posterior lower extremity
dorsal body surface
spine
posterior cranium
Chest rolls may be used in this position.
prone
Particular attention must be paid to these areas when positioning in prone position.
breasts
external genitalia
Another name for the Kraske position is?
Jackknife
Body regions accessed while in Kraske position.
anus
pilonidal area
Where are the hips located in the Kraske position?
over the table break
In the Kraske position, this may be used to expose the anus.
Tape may be used to separate the cheeks of the buttocks.
Another name for the Lateral position is?
lateral recumbent
lateral decubitus
Body regions accessed while in lateral position.
retroperitoneal space
hip
hemithorax
In the lateral position, the lower leg is?
flexed
Where is the safety strap placed while in lateral position?
over the hip
What is placed between the knees and ankles in lateral position?
pillows
Where are the arms placed in the lateral position?
on double armboards
What positioning aid may be used during lateral positioning?
Bean bag
How are the legs positioned in lateral position?
the upper leg is straight and lower leg is flexed
Body regions accessed during Kidney position.
retroperitoneal space
Positioning device used in Kidney position.
kidney rest
Which side is the patient positioned on in the Sims' position?
left lateral
Body regions accessed while in Sims' position.
anus especially during endoscopic procedures
Four ways intraoperative heat loss occurs.
Radiation
convection
conduction
evaporation
Shivering can cause this.
increased oxygen consumption
Two devices used to control body temperature.
forced air blanket
water-circulating blanket
Vital signs include-
pulse
respiration
temperature
blood pressure
This structure regulates body temperature.
hypothalamus
Normal rectal temp is.
99.6 F
What two phases of heart action is the pulse composed of?
systole
diastole
The pulse is usually taken here.
Radial artery
Pulse rate is measured how?
Number of heart beats is counted for 1 minute
Bradycardia is-
Pulse rate less than 60
Tachycardia is-
pulse rate greater than 100
Tachypnia is-
very rapid respirations
Define blood pressure.
the pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels.
Systole is-
the contraction phase of the heart
diasytole is-
the relaxation phase of the heart
Where is the stethoscope placed when taking blood pressure?
over the brachial artery
The most common method of draining the bladder is-
uretheral catherization
This must be observed when performing catherization to prevent infection.
strict aseptic technique
Indications for catherization are-
drain the bladder
irrigate the bladder
decompress the bladder
control of bleeding
The balloon of the catheter is inflated with this.
sterile water
How much water is necessary to inflate a 5cc balloon?
10 cc
The urinary bag is placed-
below the level of the bladder where anesthesia provider can see it
If a patient is allergic to latex, what is used for catherization?
a teflon or silicone catheter is used
Name 3 types of catheters.
Foley
Red Robinson
Coude tip
A red robinson is used for what?
to do an in and out straight cath to drain the bladder.
During male uretheral catherization, what particular consideration must be observed?
The foreskin must be pulled back and replaced at end of procedure to avoid injury.
Which catheter is larger, 8 FR OR 30 FR?
30 FR
What position should the female patient be in for urinary catherization?
supine and legs "frog-legged"
Which hand must never return to the sterile set up during uretheral catherization after touching the skin?
The non-dominate hand.
This must be done to the catheter prior to use.
Check balloon for leaks.
During skin prep, how do you handle a stoma?
cover stoma with sponge and prep surrounding area first, then contaminated area last.
Rule of thumb when doing a skin prep.
Prep from clean to dirty using a circular motion starting at incision site.
Towels are placed beside the patient to do what?
To prevent pooling of solutions that can cause burns
Cotton -tipped applicators are used to -
clean the umbilicus