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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Gerota's fascia?
The renal fascia that encloses the kidneys.
Where are the adrenal glands located?
They sit superior and medial to the kidneys.
What is the functional unit of the kidneys?
The nephron.
Which kidney is larger?
The left.
Which kidney is lower?
The right.
Where are the kidneys located?
In the retroperitoneal space.
What is Gerota's capsule?
Fascia surrounding the kidneys and adrenal glands.
What is the function of the ureters?
To conduct urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Which muscle is responsible for emptying the bladder and closing the orifice?
The detrusor muscle.
In males, where does the bladder sit?
On the prostrate gland.
In females, where does the bladder sit?
On the pelvic diaphragm.
What is the trigone of the bladder?
The smooth triangular area located between the uretheral openings and the uretheral apperture.
Name the male genital organs.
testes
ductus deferens
seminal vesicles
ejaculatory ducts
penis
What is the external uretheral opening called?
The meatus.
What is the foreskin of the penis called?
The prepuce.
Is the urethra longer in males or females.
Males
What structure does the urethra pass through in males?
The prostrate.
Where are the testes located?
In the scrotum.
What does UTI stand for?
Urinary tract infection.
What is Cushing's Syndrome?
Condition of the adrenal glands from overproduction of ACTH from the pituitary gland.
What is Addison's Disease?
Adrenal hormone insuffiency causing fluid imbalance and blood pressure problems.
What is Pheochromocytoma?
Tumor of the adrenal gland causing overproduction of adrenalin.Results in severe hypertension.
Another name for adrenalin?
Epinepherine
Define Hematuria.
Presence of blood in the urine.
Treatment for malignant bladder tumor?
Transuretherally
Partial cystectomy
Total cystectomy
Radiation and chemotherapy
Another name for urinary calculi?
Urinary stones.
Where do urinary calculi form?
In the kidneys.
What is ESWL and what is it used for?
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.Use of sound waves to break up kidney stones.
Diabetic Nephropathy
Glomerular sclerosis
Kidneys cannot filter blood
May lead to dialysis or transplant
When does End Stage Renal Disease occur?
When the kidneys function at less than 10%.
What is a requirement in order to perform dialysis?
To establish vascular access; dual-lumen catheter
AV fistula
Where is an AV fistula or shunt placed?
In non-dominate forarm between cephalic vein and radial artery.
What is the hemodialysis solution called?
Dialysate
Name the types of peritoneal hemodialysis.
CAPD
CCPD
IPD
Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma.
cigarette smoking
heredity
end stage renal disease and on dialysis
Describe Wilm's Tumor.
Congenital nephroblastoma
Between age 3-4
What is phimosis?
Condition where the forskin of penis will not retract.
Describe hypospadias in males and females.
Males-uretheral opening on underside of penis or on perineum.
Female-opening in vagina or perineum
Describe epispadias.
Absence of anterior wall of urethra resulting in opening on dorsal side of penis.
What causes BPH?
Benign prostatic hypertrophy is caused by aging and hormonal changes.
How is prostrate cancer diagnosed?
PSA
Biopsy
What is a surgical treatment for BPH?
TURP
What does TURP stand for?
transuretheral resection of the prostrate
This may be performed in conjunction with a radical prostatectomy.
pelvic lymph node removal
orchiectomy
Define cryptorchidism.
Failure of testes to decend into scrotum before age 1.
What is torsion of the testicle?
Twisting of the spermatic cord
Surgical treatment for testicular torsion.
Orchiopexy
orchiectomy
Treatment for testicular cancer?
orchiectomy
radiation
chemotherapy
Why would a PSA test be performed after a prostatectomy for cancer?
To rule out metasis.
What is the most important diagnostic test in urology?
Urinanylsis
What kind of specimen is needed for urinanylsis for suspected infection?
clean catch
or catheter specimen
What is a red Robinson?
A non-retaining urinary catheter also called straight cath
What is a KUB?
AP radiographic view of kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
What is IVU?
Contrast meduim injected into vein to visualize entire urological system.
What is retrograde urogram?
Contrast medium injected via a catheter with a scope into the ureters because of obstruction.
What is the only way to accurately determine malignancy and cell type?
Biopsy
Another name for transuretheral endoscopy?
cystoscopy
Describe a cysto table?
OR bed in cysto to accomodate lithotomy position, has built-in x-ray, drain, IV poles, is adjustable.
What is a catheter guide?
A metal guide inserted into catheter, to help insert the catheter, then removed.
Name some solutions used for visualization during cystoscopy.
glycine
sorbitol
water
saline
What is a bridge used for?
accomodate extra length of scope,extra ports for instruments, catheters, etc
What is a resectoscope?
Scope with a working element to facilitate use of electrode to resect tissue.
Is there an alternative method to chest tube placement?
Pursestring suture placed around red robinson, Valsalva performed,suture tightened as catheter removed.
Ellik evacuator or Toomey syringe are used for what?
To remove resected tumor pieces and tissue.
3 main positions used for genitourinary surgery.
lithotomy
supine
lateral and variations of
Incisions used for genitourinary surgery.
inguinal
scrotal
abdominal
Gibson
flank
lumbar
inguinal incision used for?
access scrotal contents
Describe a Gibson incision and its uses.
oblique incision used for access to the lower portion of the ureter.
When using a flank incision during genitourinary surgery, is the peritoneum entered?
no
Name the different types of flank incisions.
subcostal
transcostal
intercostal