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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communication
the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people. Transmitting the sender's intended meaning (not just symbols) is the essence of good communication
Model of Communication
1. sender forms a message and encodes it into words, gestures, voice intonations, and other symbols or signs
2. Encoded message is transmitted to the intended receiver through one or more communication channels (media)
3. receiver senses the incoming message and decodes it into something meaningful
4. sender looks for evidence that the other person received and understood the transmitted info
Verbal Communication
transmits meaning through WORDS

examples: speaking, texting, email, word choice, letters, sign language
Non-Verbal Communication
any part of communication that does NOT use words
usually automatic and unconscious

examples: actions, facial gestures, voice intonation, physical distance, silence
Media Richness
the medium's data-carrying capacity; the volume and variety of information that can be transmitted during a specific time

face-to-face is most media rich
Information Overload
occurs when the volume of information received exceeds the person's capacity to get through it
Getting your message across
1. empathize
2. repeat the message
3. use timing effectively
4. be descriptive
Active Listening
1. Sensing
2. Evaluating
3. Responding
Grapevine
Unstructured and informal network founded on social relationships rather than organizational charts or job descriptions
Management by Walking Around (MBWA)
a communication practice in which executives get out of their offices and learn from others in the organization through face-to-face dialogue
wikis
collaborative web spaces in which anyone in a group can write, edit or remove material from the Web site
Contingency of Media Richness
non-routine situations
parties have little common experiance (ex. emergencies)
Contingency of Media Richness
ambiguous situations
need to resolve multiple and conflicting interpretations
Three Factors that override/blur media richness
1. ability to multi-communicate
2. more varied proficiency levels
(some can push more info that others)
3. social distractions of rich channels
Communication Barriers (Noise)
1. Perceptions
2. Filtering
3. Language
a. jargon
b. ambiguity
Male Communication
"Report Talk" - primary function of conversation is impersonal & efficient information exchange
Female Communication
"rapport talk" - communicate for relationship building (although, may use report talk as well, especially when conversing with men)
Benefits of grapevine
1. fills in missing information when it is not avaliable through formal channels
2. main conduit through which org stories and other symbols of culture are communicated
3. relieves anxiety
4. associated with drive to bond
Limitations of grapevine
1. distortions might escalate anxiety
2. perceived lack of concern for employees when company info is slower than grapevine
Characteristics of Grapevine
1. transmits information rapidly in all directions
2. follows a cluster chain pattern
3. more active in homogeneous groups
4. transmits some degree of truth
5. distorts info by deleting fine details and exaggerating key points
6. changes due to internet
a. e-mail, social networks, blogs/forums
Direct Communication with Top Management
Types
MWBA
town hall meetings
roundtable forums
Direct Communication with Top Management
Benefits
1. potentially minimize filtering
2. help executives acquire a deeper meaning and quicker understanding of internal problems
3. employees might have more empathy for decisions made further up the hierarchy
Cross-Cultural Communication
Non-Verbal differences
1. voice intonation
2. interpreting nonverbal meaning
3. importance of verbal vs. nonverbal
4. silence and conversational gaps
5. gestures
Noise
the psychological, social and structural barriers that distort and obscure the sender's intended message