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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of bones, is the subject if these next three xhapters.
Function of the skeleton:
support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, and blood formation.
__________ is composed of bones, cartilagem and ligaments joined tightly to form a strong, flexible framework for the body.
skeletal system
_________ are conspicuously longer then wide. like crowbars..
long bones
_________ are nearly equal in length and width.
short bones
__________ enclose and protect soft organs and provide broad surfaces for muscles attachment.
flat bones
__________ have elaborate shaps that do not fit into any of the proceeding categories.
irregular bones
much of it is composed of a cylinder of dense white osseous tissue called ___________.
compact (dense) bone
the principal feature od bomne are its shaft is __________.
a bone coveed with a sheath is called ___________.
____________ is a hyaline cartilage separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and diaphysis.
_________ are bones forming cells.
___________ are former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they deposited.
_____________ are stem cells that developed from fibroblast and then given the most other gone cells
osteogenic cells
concentric lamellae
____________- is a connective tissue in which the matrix is harden by the depostition of calicuim phosphate and other minerals.
osseuous tissue
The cylinder of dense white osseuous tissues callled ________.
medullary cavity, or marrow cavity
A bone is covered with a sheath called the ___________.
___________ of hyaline cartilage separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and diaphyseal.
epiphyseal plate
The spongy layer in the cranium is called ____________.
_______________ are stem cells that developed from fibroblasts and then give rise to most other bone cells.
_________ are bone forming cells.
__________ are former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they deposited. The reside in tiny cavities called ____(B)_____ which connected by slender channels called ____(C)_____.
(B) lacunae
(C) canaliculi
_______________ are bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface
The __________________ is, by dry weight, about one third organic anad two thirds inroganic matter.
matrix of osseous tissue
____________ is layers of matrix concentrically arranged around a _______(B)_________.
Concentric lamellae
(B) central canal
Open into narrow ____________ that crosss the matrix abd feed into the central canals.
perforating canals
Spongy bone is consiste of s latticfe of slender rods, plates, and spines called ___________.
_____________ is a general term for soft tissue that occupies the marrow cavity of a long bone, the spaces amid the trabeculae of spongy bone, and the larger central canals.
Bone marrow
In a child, the marrow cavity of nearly every bone is filled with ______________ .
red bone marrow
In adult, most of this red marow turns to fatty ______________. like the fat at the center of a ham bone.
yellow bone marrow
The fromation of bone is called _____________
ossification or osteogenesis
_______________ produces the flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle.
Intramembranous ossification
Cells deposit an organic matrix called _______________ -- soft collagenous tissue similar to bone except for a lack of minerals.
osteoid tissue
_____________- is a process in which a bone develops from a preexisting model composed of hyaline cartilage.
Endochondral ossification
_____________ develops into a body of hyaline cartilage, covered with a fibrous oerichrondrium, in the location of a future bone.
The region of chrondrocyte enlargement is called the _____________________.
primary ossification center.
as the center of the model is hollowed out and filled with blood snf sem cells, it becomes the _________________________.
primary marrow cavity
The region of transition from cartilage to bone at each end of the primary marrow cavity is called a ______________.
Te region, farthest from the marrow cavity, consists og typical hyaline catilage that as yet shows no sign of transforming into bone is ______________.
Zone of reserve cartilage.
A little closer ti tge narriw cavutym chondrocytes multiply and arane themselves into longitudinal columns of flattened lacunae.
Zone of cell proliferation
Minerals are deposited in the matrix between the columns of lacunae and calcify the cartilage.
Zone of cell hypertrophy
Within each column, the calls betwen the lacunae break down and the chondrocytes die.
Zone of bone deposition.
The junctional resion where they meet is filled with spngy bone, and the site of the original epiphyseal plate is marked with a line of slightly denser spngy bone called the _____________________.
Epiphyseal line
Bone continually grow throughout life in diamete and thickness, this involved=s a process called______________ .
appositional growth
_________________ states yhst the architecture of a bone is determined by the mechanical stresses paced upon it, and the bone hereby afapts to withstand thoe stresses.
Wolff's law of bone
_____________- is a crystallication process in which calcium, phosphatem and other ions are taken from the blood plasma and deposited in bone tissue.
mineral deposition
Abnormal calicification of tissues is called _____________________.
ectopic ossification
__________ is process of dissolving bone. It release minerals into the blood and makes them available for other uses.
Mineral resorption
The phosphorus concentration in the plasma ranges between _________________.
3.5 and 4.0 mg/dl
____________ is an inability muscle to relax.
__________ is an excessive amounts of calcuim bind to the cell surface, increasing the charge difference across the membrane and making sodium channels less responsive.
_____________ depression of the nervous system, emotional disturbances, ,muscle weakness. sluggish reflexes, and someimes cardiac arrest
______________ is a form of vitamin D produced by the sequential action of the skin, liver, and kidneys.
__________ is a blood borne chemical messenger from one organ to another.
calcitriol behaves as a hormone
__________ is secreted by C cells of the thyroid gland, a larger endocrine gland in the neck.
Withing 15 minutes after it is secreted, calcitonin reduced osteoclast activity by a much as 70%, so osteoclasts liberate less calcium from the skeleton is called ____________.
Osteoclast Inhibition
Within an hour, calcitonin increases the number and activity of osteoblasts, which deposit calcium into the skeleton is called ___________.
Osteobblast Stimulation
A _____________ fracture is a break caused be abnormal trauma to a bone, such as fractures incurred in falls, athletics, and military combat.
Stress Fracture
A ___________________ is a break in a bone weakened by some other diseases, such as bone cancer or osteoporosis,, usually caused by a stress that would not normally fractures a bone.
Pathologic FRacture
___________ is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and correction of injuries and disorders of the bones, joints, and muscles.
___________ is a precedure in which the bone fragments are manipulated into their normal positions without surgery.
closed reduction
__________ involves the surgical exposure of the bone and the use or plates, screwsm or pins to realign the fragments.
Open reduction