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166 Cards in this Set

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Identify the joint type:

Typically allows a slight degree of movement
Cartilaginous
Identify the joint type:

Includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis
Cartilaginous
Identify the joint type:

Essentially immovable joints
Fibrous
Identify the joint type:

Sutures are the most remembered examples
Fibrous
Identify the joint type:

Characterized by cartilage connecting bony portions
Cartilaginous
Identify the joint type:

All characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
Synovial
Identify the joint type:

All are freely moveable or diathrotic
Synovial
Identify the joint type:

Bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue
Fibrous
Identify the joint type:

Include the hip, knee and elbow joints
Synovial
A band of regular fibrous tissue that connects BONE.
Ligament
Cord of dense fibrous tissue attached MUSCLE to BONE.
Tendon
Hyaline cartilage covering bone ends at moveable joints.
Articular Cartilage
The inner layer of the joint capsule that is composed of connective tissue.
Synovial Membrane
Fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid; occurs between two bones and muscle tendons (or other structures) where it acts to decrease friction during movement.
Bursa
What kind of joint?

Joint between the axis and atlas
Pivot
What kind of joint?

Hip joint
Ball and socket
What kind of joint?

Intervertebral joint (between articular processes)
Gliding/Plane
What kind of joint?

Joint between forearm bones and wrist
Condyloid
What kind of joint?

Elbow
Hinge
What kind of joint?

Interphalangeal joints
Hinge
What kind of joint?

Intercarpal joints
Gliding/plane
What kind of joint?

Joint between talus and tibia/fibula
Hinge
What kind of joint?

Joint between skull and vertebral column
Condyloid
What kind of joint?

Joint between jaw and skull
Hinge
What kind of joint?

Joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones
Condyloid
What kind of joint?

A multiaxial joint
Ball and socket
What kind of joint?

Biaxial joints
Condyloid and Saddle
What kind of joint?

Uniaxial joints
Hinge and Pivot
Indicate the number of planes in which each joint can move

Uniaxial Joints
One
Indicate the number of planes in which each joint can move

Biaxial Joints
Two
Indicate the number of planes in which each joint can move

Multiaxial Joints
Three
What characteristics do all joints have in common?
They hold bones together and allow various degrees of skeletal movement.
Is the hip or knee joint more stable and why?
The hip because it has strong ligaments and deep sockets.
What are two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee?
Menisci and ligaments and tendons crossing joints
What are four factors that contribute to the shoulder joint having a large range of motion?
1. The articular capsule enclosing the joint cavity
2. Rotator cuff
3. Large head and small joint
4. Muscle tendons
In which direction does the shoulder usually dislocate?
Forward and downward
During muscle contraction, the _________ moves toward the _________.
Insertion and origin
What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?
Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint diseases)
What is the injury?

The ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn
Sprain
What is the injury?

Bones are forced out of alignment
Dislocation
What type of tissue damage might you expect to find in a dislocated joint?
Inflammation and stretching of the joint capsule and ligaments
Decreasing the angle between
two bones

Bending your head toward your chest
Flexion
Increasing the angle between
two bones

Straightening an elbow
Extension
Moving a limb away from the midline.

Raising your arm laterally
Abduction
Moving a limb toward the midline

Lowering your arm
Adduction
Moving the limb in a circular (cone-shaped) manner

Pitcher winding up to throw a ball
Circumduction
Turning movement of a bone along its long axis.

The atlas over the axis
(shake your head “no”) and at hip & shoulder joints.
Rotation
Movements of the radius
around the ulna.

Palm up – supination
Palm down – pronation
Supination/Pronation
Movement of foot.

Sole inward – inversion
Sole outward – eversion
Inversion/Eversion
Movement of the thumb when you
touch your thumb to the tips of your other fingers
Opposition
Raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches
Deltoid Tuberosity
Arm bone
Humerus
Bones of the shoulder girdle
Clavicle, scapula
Forearm bones
Ulna, radius
Scapular region to which the clavicle connects
Acromion
Shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton
Scapula
Shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the body thorax
Clavicle
Depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerus
Glenoid cavity
Process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment
Coracoid process
The "collarbone"
Clavicle
Distal condyle on the humerus that articulates with the ulna
Trochlea
Medial bone of forearm in anatomical position
Ulna
Rounded knob on the humerus; adjoins the radius
Capitulum
Anterior depression, superior to the trochlea, that receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed
Coronoid fossa
Forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow joint
Ulna
Wrist bones
Carpals
Finger bones
Phalanges
Heads of these bones form the knuckles
Metacarpals
Bones that articulate with the clavicle
Scapula, sternum
How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic cage?
The clavicle acts as a strut to hold the glenoid cavity of the scapula (therefore the arm) laterally away from the humerus dimension of the rib cage
What is the total number of phalanges in the hand?
14
What is the total number or carpals in the wrist?
8
The bones of the pectoral girdle:
Flexibility is most important
Lightweight
Insecure axial & limb attachments
The bones of the pelvic girdle:
Massive
Secure axial & limb attachments
Weight-bearing most important
What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle?
Uterus in the female, urinary bladder, small intestines, rectum
Distinguish between the true pelvis and the false pelvis.
The false pelvis is really part of the abdomen and helps support the abdominal viscera; does not restrict childbirth. The true pelvis is almost entirely surrounded by bone and contains the pelvic organs; contains the pelvic inlet and outlet.
What is the difference between the male and female pelvis?
The female pelvis is lighter, thinner, smoother, tilted forward and adapted for childbirth, the coccyx is straighter and more movable
Why is the pelvic bones of a four-legged animal such as the cat or pig much less massive than those of a human?
Because the pelvic girdle does not have to carry the entire weight of the upper portion of the body
What bone acts as a brace to hold the arms out and away from the body?
Clavicle
When you hit your elbow and say that you hit your "funny bone," you have actually hit a nerve that runs across the bone surface. Over which bone can this nerve be found?
Humerus
What allows the foot to hold up the weight of the body?
Arches
The frontal bone forms the:
Anterior cranium
Most facial bones articulate with the:
Maxillary bones
The movable base of the tongue is the:
Hyoid bone
Which bone of the body is the only bone that does not articulate directly with any other bone?
Hyoid bone
The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.
Sagittal
What is the major function of the axial skeleton?
Provide central support for the body and protect internal organs
The ___________ articulate(s) with the hip bones of the pelvis.
Sacrum
What is the major function of the intervertebral discs?
Absorb shock
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?
Scoliosis
Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body?
The lumbar region
Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have ________.
Facets for attachment of ribs
The articulation that most closely resembles a hinge in the body involves which bones?
Humerus/ulna
How are the male and female pelves different?
The female pelvis is designed for childbearing.
The pelvic girdle does not include the ________.
Sacrum
Does the scapula attach to the axial skeleton?
No
Which of the following bones is not weight bearing?
Fibula
The heel bone is called the ________.
Calcaneus
The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.
Fontanelles
Functional classification of joints is based on:
The amount of movement allowed by the joint.
Which of the following does not represent a structural classification of joints?
Synovial
Cartilaginous
Fibrous
DIARTHROSES
What is a joint that is immovable?
SYNARTHROSIS
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.
Amphiarthroses
Synarthrotic joints ________.
Permit essentially no movement
Is the amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.
Yes
Do all joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight?
No
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.
Gomphosis
On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?
Syndesmosis
Fibrous joints are classified as ________.
Sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ________ joint.
Suture
Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ________ joint.
Diarthroses
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.
Provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.
Symphysis
________ are cartilaginous joints.
Synchondroses
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.
Hyaline cartilage
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?
It contains hyaluronic acid.
What statements defines synchondroses?
Cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
Most joints of the body are classified as_______ joints.
Synovial
Whst is not a factor that stabilizes joints?
Amount of synovial fluid
The synovial membrane:
Lines the inside of the fibrous capsule of a joint.
Extension is an example of a(n) ______ movement.
Angular
The shoulder and hip are examples of:
ball-and-socket joints.
Synovial joints are classified into six main categories based on:
the movements they allow.
In a sprain, the ______ of a joint are stretched or torn.
ligaments
What is the major factor that influences the stability of synovial joints?
Muscle tone
Which of the following is the defining structure of a synovial joint?
Joint cavity
Which movement increases the angle between bones?
Extension
Which joint has sacrificed stability to provide freedom of movement?
Shoulder
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ________.
Bursae
The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.
prevent hyperextension of the knee
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint.
plane
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.
hyperextension
What are menisci?
semilunar cartilage pads
What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called?
Abduction
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.
Feet
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.
Multiaxial
Pointing the toes is an example of ________.
plantar flexion
Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that articulate to form a saddle joint.
The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.
Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ________.
Protraction
A ________ is a fluid-filled sac a tendon slides over.
Bursa
Does the articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability?
Yes
Is the major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable movement.?
Yes
Is a movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior is supination?
Yes
Which of the following is correctly paired?

Smooth muscle: striated
Cardiac muscle: nonstriated
Skeletal muscle: voluntary control
Cardiac muscle: voluntary control
Skeletal muscle: voluntary control
Muscle tissue does not:
Generate nerve impulses.
Which muscle characteristic describes the ability of muscle to respond to a stimulus?
Excitability
What surrounds the individual muscle cell?
Endomysium
Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except ________.

contractility
secretion
excitability
extensibility
Secretion
The end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called the ________.
Insertion
Is one of the important functions of skeletal muscle contraction is production of heat?
Yes
Will muscle contraction will always promote movement of body parts regardless of how they are attached?
No
The connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle, in order from internal to external are the:
Endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium
The smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber is the:
Sarcomere
The major role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to regulate:
Intracellular levels of Ca2+.
The sliding filament model of contraction states that:
During contraction, the thin filaments slide past the thick filaments so that actin and myosin filaments overlap.
When muscles are contracting under oxygen deficient conditions, they will form ________ to ensure they maintain a supply of ATP.
Lactic acid
Which organelle contains the contractile elements found in skeletal muscle?
Myofibril
What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?
sarcoplasmic reticulum
What produces the striations of a skeletal muscle cell?
the arrangement of myofilaments
What are composed of myosin?
thick filaments
The term aponeurosis refers to ________.
a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element
The oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is ________.
Myoglobin
The contractile units of skeletal muscles are ________.
Myofibrils
What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle called?
a sarcomere
Only ________ muscle cells are always multinucleated.
skeletal
Is peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle?
Yes