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77 Cards in this Set

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absorption
Passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream.
amino acids
Building blocks of protein and produced when proteins are digested.
amylase
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
anus
Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
appendix
Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ). It literally means "hanging" (pend/o) "on" (ap-).
bile
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile was originally called gall probably because it has a bitter taste. It is composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts.
bilirubin
Pigment released by the liver in bile.
bowel
Intestine.
Canine teeth
Pointed, dog-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
Cecum
First part of the large intestine.
colon
Large intestine (cecum, ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and rectum)
common bile duct
Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
Defecation
Expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
deglutition
Swallowing.
dentin
Major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
digestion
Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
duodenum
First part of the small intestine. Duo=2, den=10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.
elimination
Removal of waste material from the body.
emulsification
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enamel
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
enzyme
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
esophagus
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso-means inward; phag/o means swallowing.
fatty acids
Substances produced when fats are digested.
feces
Solid wastes; stools.
gallbladder
Small sac under the liver; stores bile.
glucose
Simple sugar.
glycogen
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
enzyme
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
enzyme
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
esophagus
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso-means inward; phag/o means swallowing.
esophagus
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso-means inward; phag/o means swallowing.
fatty acids
Substances produced when fats are digested.
fatty acids
Substances produced when fats are digested.
ileum
Thrid part of the small intestine; fron the Greek eilos, meaning "twisted".
feces
Solid wastes; stools.
feces
Solid wastes; stools.
gallbladder
Small sac under the liver; stores bile.
gallbladder
Small sac under the liver; stores bile.
glucose
Simple sugar.
glucose
Simple sugar.
glycogen
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
glycogen
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
ileum
Thrid part of the small intestine; fron the Greek eilos, meaning "twisted".
ileum
Thrid part of the small intestine; fron the Greek eilos, meaning "twisted".
incisor
One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
incisor
One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
incisor
One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
insulin
Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
jejunum
Secodn part of the small intestine. The Latin jejunus means "empty"; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death.
lipase
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
liver
A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores fugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs about 2 1/2 to 3 pounds.
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac Sphincter.
mastication
Chewing.
molar teeth
Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the 4th and 5th teeth, befor the molars.
palate
Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate.
pancreas
Organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
papillae (singular: papilla)
Small elevations on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation.
parotid glands
Salivary gland withing the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
peristalsis
Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and other tubular structures. Peristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates; stomach (0.5 to 2 hours), small intestine (2 to 6 hours), and colon (6 to 72 hours). Peri- means surrounding and -stalsis is constriction.
pharynx
Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.
portal vein
Large vein bringing blood to the liver fron the intestines.
protease
Enzymes that digest protein.
pulp
Soft tissure within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
pyloric sphincter
Ring of muscle fibers at the Distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum. From Greek pyloros, meaning "gatekeeper".
rectum
Last section of the colon.
rugae
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
saliva
Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
salivary glands
Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
sigmoid colon
Lower part of the colon; shaped like and S.
sphincter
Ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage of closes a natural opening.
stomach
Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are the fundus (poirximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section).
triglycerides
Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol.
uvula
Soft tissue hanging fron the soft palate into the mouth. Latin, uva means "grape".
villi (singular: villus)
Microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.