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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment
Carcadian rhythm
A cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hrs long; the cyclical daily fluctuations in biological and psychological processes
Suprachiasmatic nucleus {SCN}
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythms
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness
An instrument that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure and record the brain's electrical activity
The graphic record of brain activity produced by an electroencephalagraph
REM Sleep
Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed; aka active sleep or paradoxical sleep
NREM Sleep
Quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent
Beta Brain Waves
Brain-wave pattern associated with alert wakefulness
Alpha Brain Waves
Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness
Hypnagogic Hallucinations
Vivid sensory phenomena that occur during the onset of sleep
Sleep Spindles
Short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep
K Complex
Single but large high-voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 NREM sleep
Sleep Paralysis
A temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night
REM Rebound
A phenomenon in which a person who is deprived of REM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first opportunity to sleep uninterupted
Restorative theory of sleep
The view that sleep and dreaming are essential to normal physical and mental functioning
Adaptive theory of sleep
The view that the unique sleep patterns of different animals evolved over time to help promote survival and environmental adaptation; aka evolutionary theory of sleep
Sleep Disorders
Serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress
A condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep
Restless Leg Syndrome {RLS}
A condition in which unpleasant sensations in the lower legs are accompanied by an irresistable urge to move the legs, temporarily relieving the unpleasant sensation but disrupting sleep
Sleep Apnea
A sleep disorder in which the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of walking or performing other actions during stage 3 or 4 NREM sleep; aka somnambulism
Night Terrors
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of increased physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning; typically occurs during stage 3 and 4 NREM sleep; aka sleep terrors
A category of sleep disorders characterized by arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transitions; includes sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep bruxism, sleep-related eating disorder, and REM sleep behavior disorder
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
A sleep disorder in which the sleeper acts out his or her dreams
A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day
A sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control that is usually triggered by an intense emotion
Sleep thinking
Repetitive, bland, and uncreative ruminations about real-life events during sleep
A story-like episode of unfolding mental imagery during sleep
A frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that occurs during REM sleep
Manifest content
An Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the elements of a dream that are consciously experienced and remembered by the dreamer
Latent content
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious wishes, thoughts, and urges that are concealed in the manifest content of a dream
Activation-synthesis model of dreaming
The theory that brain activity during sleep produces dream images, which are combined by the brain into a dream story
A cooperative social interaction in which the hypnotized person responds to the hypnotist's suggestions with changes in perception, memory, and bahavior
Posthypnotic suggestion
A suggestion made during hypnosis that the person should carry out a specific instruction following the hypnotic session
Posthypnotic amnesia
The inability to recall specific information because of a hypnotic suggestion
The supposed enhancement of a person's memoryfor past events through a hypnotic suggestion
The splitting of consciousness into two or more simultaneous streams of mental activity
Neodissociation theory of Hynosis
Theory proposed by Ernest Hilgard that explains hypnotic effects as being due to the splitting of consciousness into two simultaneous streams of mental activity, only one of which the hypnotic participant is consciouly aware of during hypnosis
Hidden observer
Hilgard's term for the hidden , or dissociated, stream of mental activity that continues during hypnosis
Any one of a number of sustained concentration techniques that focus attention and heighten awareness
Psychoactive Drug
A drug that alters consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior
Physical dependence
A condition in which a person had physically adapted to a drug so that he or she must take the drug regularly in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Drug tolerance
A condition in which increasing amounts of a physically addictive drug are needed to produce the original, desired effect
Withdrawal Symptoms
Unpleasant physical reactions, combined with intense drug cravings, that occur when a person abstains from a drug on which he or she is physically dependent
Drug rebound effect
Withdrawal symptoms that are the opposite of a physically addictive drug's action
Drug abuse
Recurrent drug use that results in disruptions in acedemic, social, or occupational functioning or in legal or psychological problems
A category of psychoactive drugs that depress or inhibit brain activity
A category of depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and produce sleepiness
Depressant drugs that relieve anxiety
A category of psychoactive drugs that increase brain activity, arouse behavior, and increase mental alertness
A stimulant drug found in coffee, tea, cola drinks, chocolate, and many over-the-counter medications
A stimulant drug found in tobacco products
A class of stimulant drugs that arouse the central nercous system and suppress appetite
A stimulant drug derived from the coca tree
Stimulant-induced psychosis
Schizophrenia-like symptoms that can occur as the result of prolonged amphetamine or cocaine use; aka amphetamine psychosis or cocaine psychosis
Psychedelic drugs
A category of psychoactive drugs that create sensory and perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking
A psychedelic drug derived from the peyote cactus
A synthetic psychedelic drug
A psychoactive drug derived from the hemp plant
MDMA or ecstasy
Synthetic club drug that combines stimulant and mild psychedelic effects
Dissociative Anesthetics
Class of drugs that reduce sensitivity to pain and produce feelings of detachment and dissociation; includes the club drugs phencyclidine{PCP} and ketamine