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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Unitary System
a centralized system in which state and local govts. exercise only those powers given to them by the national/central govt. which holds ultimate authority
Confederal System
a Confederation; a league of independent states; the central govt. handles only those matters of common concern expressly delegated to it by member states; the central govt. can't pass laws that directly apply to individuals unless the member states explicitly support such laws
Federal System
a compromise between the Confederal and Unitary form of govt.; authority is usually divided btwn. national and state or other regional govts. by a written constitution.
All levels of govt. (national, state, & local) have the power to pass laws that directly influence the people; BUT the National Govt.'s laws are supreme
Division of Powers
the way in which governmental powers are divided btwn. the national govt. and state govts.
Expressed/Enumerated Powers
Those powers that are explicitly delegated to the nataional government; listed in the Constitution
Implied Powers
powers of the National Govt. that are implied by the expressed powers
Elastic Clause
the clause that gives Congress all those powers that can be reasonably implied/inferred from the brief wording of the Constitution, even though they aren't expressly stated
Inherent Powers
powers of the National Govt. that are simply there to ensure the nation's integrity and survival as a political unit
Reserved Powers
powers not given to the national government and not denied to the state government; therefore they are given to the state govts.
Concurrent Powers
certain powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state govts.
Horizontal Federalism
interaction among the state governments
The Priveleges and Immunities Clause
the clause that prevents states from discriminating against citizens of other states
Full Faith and Credit Clause
the clause that requires states to recognize one another's laws and court decisions
when a fugitive is caught and returned to the state from which they fled
Republican form of government
the form of government in which the people are governed by elected representatives
The Supremacy Clause
the clause that gives the national govt. supremacy over all state and local govts. it implies that states can't use their reserved or concurrent powers to counter national policies
McCulloch v. Maryland
established that Congress had implied power (based on necessary and proper clause)including the implied powers to create a national bank; and also established that no state could use its taxing power to tax an arm of the national government
Gibbons v. Ogden
case which held the issue of whether the national govt. had the exclusive power to regulate commerce involving more than one state; the decision established the defining of the word "commerce" and that the power to regulate interstate commerce was an exclusive national power and had no limitations other than those specifically found in the Constitution
Dual Federalism
the model assuming that the states and the national govt. are more or less equal, w/ each level of govt. having separate and distinct functions and responsibilities
Cooperative Federalism
the model that involves cooperation among all levels of govt. this model views the national and state govts. as complementary parts of a single govermental mechanism; this model erupted during the New Deal and the Great Depression
New Federalism
the model that involves returning to the states certain powers that have been exercised by the national govt. since the 1930s; it is a shift from a nation-centered federalism to a state-centered federalism
the transfer of powers to political sub-unites

i.e. the New Federalism model