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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 levels transport occurs in
cellular
short distance
long distance
moves particles through selectively permeable
membranes
transport protiens
Molecules tend to
move____ their concentration gradients
down
____________ play a central
role in transport across plasma membranes of plant cells is the proton pump
proton pumps
proton pumps Hydrolyzes ____ to
pump H+ ions
ATP
membrane potential
(1) s
forms potential E
Drives the transport of many other solute
Differences in _________ drive water
transport in plant cells
water potiental
the
passive transport of water across a membrane
osmosis
the direction of
water movement depends on _____ and _____ together called water
potential
solute [ ] and pressure
Vacuolated plant cells have three major
compartments
vacole, cytosol and cell wall
two major plant cellular membranes
tronoplast and cell membrane
The traffic of materials into and out of the ______ is regulated by the tronoplast and cell membrane
protoplast
vacuole has a relatively ____ pH
low
cytosol has a relatively ___ pH
high
cell wall and area outside the plasma membrane have a relatively ___ pH
low
a low pH means a ____ [H+]
high
two types of transport with tissues of an organism
apoplast and symplast
___________ connects the symplast
plasmodermata
The walls of adjacent plant cells are in
contact forming
apoplast
3 routes of transport in plants
apoplast
symplast
transmembrane
route requires repeated crossing of plasma membrane
transmembrane
route requires only one crossing of plasma membrane and cytosol
symplastic
route follows the
extracellular pathway consisting of cell wall and extracelluar space
apoplast
functions in long-distance transport
Bulk flow
is much
too slow for long distance transport with in a plant
diffusion
 the evaporation
of the water from a leaf reduces pressure in the leaves xylem
transpiration
_____, ______, and a large surface area of cortical cells enhance H₂O and mineral absorption
root hairs
mycorrhizea,
much of the
absorbtion of H₂O and minerals occurs ______ where the epidermis is permeable to water and where ______are located
near root tips
root hairs
,______ extentions
of the epidermis cells account much of the surface area of roots
Root hairs
in the soil the water
flows into the _____ wall of epidermal cells and passes freely along the______
into the root cortex
hydrophilic
apoplast
(3) Most plants form a partnership with _______ for absorbing H₂O and minerals from soil.
symbiotic fungi
Infected roots
form _______ symbiotic structure consisting of the plants roots united
with the fungal hyphea
mycorrhizea,
absorbs water and selective minerals
transferring much of these to host plants
mycorrhizea,
Water and minerals can enter the roots via the____ or _____
apoplast or symplast
Some water and
minerals are transported by ____then enter strait the endodermis
symplolast
______ route reach the
endoplasm and are blocked by the Caparisons Strip
apoplast
The absent of
xylem sap depends mainly on _________and________
transpiration and the physical properties of water
Water potential
is created by
root pressure
transpiration
Water moves from ___ to ___
H20 potential
high to low
mediate the photosynthesis- transpiration compromise
Guard cells
1. Guard cells mediate the
photosynthesis-transpiration compromise
Each stoma is
flanked by a pair of ______which are suspended by other epidermal cells
over an air chamber, leading to the internal air space
guard cells
control the diameter of the stoma by changing shape, thereby widening or narrowing
the gap between the two cell
Guard cells
When guard cells
take in water by osmosis, they become more turgid and because of the orientation of cellulose micro fibrils, the guard cells
buckle outward
When cells lose
water and become flaccid, they become
less bowed and the space between them
closes
Changes in turgor pressure that open and close stomata result from
the reversible uptake and loss
of K+ by guard cell
Stoma open when guard cells actively accumulate_____ from neighboring epidermal cells
K+
(1)             
Stomata closing
result from an exodus off__from guard cells, leading to osmotic
loss in H2O
K+
What causes the K+
flux?
Active
photosynthesis proton pumps and membrane potential
Phloem _________ its sap from sugar source to sugar sinks
translocates
is the a plant organ (especially mature leaves) in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis of the breakdown of starch
A sugar source
an organ (such as growing roots and shoots, or fruit) that is a net consumer or
starch of sugar
A sugar sink is
The process of phloem sap flow is called ___________. In angiosperms, the specialization are______
translocation
sieve tube members
Sap is composed
mostly of
sugar sucrose
sap contains
sap, minerals, amino acids, and hormones
Three levels of
Sucrose Transportation
At the cellular level across the membrane,sucrose accumulated in phloem cells by active transport
At the short distance level within organisms, sucrose migrates to phloem via the symplast
and apoplast
At the long
distance level between organism. Pull flow within sieve tubes transports phloem
sap from sugar to sink
3 Levels of Cellular Transport
• Cell to Cell
• Local Cellular Transport
• Long distance Transport
pumps aid crossing substances that cannot normally make it across the membrane.
H+ ion
Outside cell wall is more hydrogen
and ___ pH
less
After H+ gets out it
will flow back in using due to the
concentration gradient
2 continuous compartments in
plants
Symplast-
Apoplast- cell wall continuous
cytosol connected by
plasmadermata
3 major ways plants transport.
Symplast--Membrane transport
Apoplast--Wall Transport
Transmembrane-- goes completely across both apo- and sym- plasts
symplast
Membrane transport
  
  Apoplast--
Wall
Transport
Transmembrane
goes completely across both apo- and sym- plasts
only does this for signaling
movement of liquids b/c of differences in pressure
bulk flow
is more selective than aplastic
Symplastic
Xylem movement is based on______ action
capillary
Gas Exchange is in leaves but also in
root and shoots
Water has to go in before towards the ______of the root
into the xylem before it can be transported ______
center
upwards.
cell wall with _____ pH thus it is very __________environment.
(Great for water.)
root hairs
low
hydrophilic
In the Xylem water goes _____ route
apoplast
Mycorrihayze and roots have a ____ relationship
symbiotic
fungi give the roots ______ and the plant give the fungi excess ____
water and nutrients
glucose
Charged molecules can't get out once inside the
symplast without a
protien pump
the waxy layer on the inside of the endoderm. (similar to cuticle.)
casperian strip
All molecules in the apoplast will eventually reach the_________ and have to cross the membrane to become symplastic
casperian strip
once substances reach the xylem they must cross
the _____ to be transfered up through the tracheid cell walls
apoplast
2 Major Mechanisms of Xylem Transport
-Root pressure
-Transpiration
2 Molecular forces that aid in transport
    --Cohesion-H₂O ability
to stick together
    --Adhesion-H₂O ability
to stick to other surfaces
However while in the sponge-like area the exodus of this water will cause an increased ___
hydrostatic pressure
Sucking in water in areas between spongia
as water is removed-water clings tighter to the
wall
Opened only when there is enough water closed
when low amounts of water
stoma
More _______ causing stoma to open large
water in more pressure
Causes stoma to be closed
Less water more flacid
Every stomata has
2 guard cells
K gets in by
-Active photosythesis
-with ATP and glucose K can be transfered with Hydrogen cells outside the cell
water need to go out only to bring more water in
transpiration
Translocation instead of Transpiration
phloem
Xylem alway
goes up
Phloem moves from
source to sink
Leaves are ________ in summer and fall and roots are _____                                              
source
Leaves
are ______ in spring and ______is roots
sink
source
Sap contains
Sucrose, amino acids, hormones. nutrients
Translocation follows ___ route
symplast
Sucrose is hidden by using
starche