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62 Cards in this Set

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All of us have a hierarchy of values that forms our value system. By what values is this system identified?
This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to values such as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality.
What are values?
Values represent basic convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence."
What are terminal values?
Terminal values are desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
When did the Veterans enter the workforce? Approximately how old are they now? (2003)
Veterans entered the workforce during the 1950s or early 1960s. They are approximately 60+ now (2003).
When did the Next-ers enter the workforce? Approximately how old are they now? (2003)
The next-ers entered the workforce during 2000 to present. They are approximately under 25 now (2003).
What are the dominant work values of the X-ers?
The dominant work values of the X-ers are Work/Life balance, team-oriented, dislike or rules; loyalty to relationships.
What are the dominant work values of the Next-ers?
The dominant work values of the Next-ers are:
Confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships.
What do values contain?
Values contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual's ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.
Content attribute: What's Important
Intensity attribute: Specifies how important.
What are instrumental values?
Instrumental values are the preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values.
What are the dominant work values of the Veterans?
The dominant work values of the Veterans:
Hardworking, conservative, conforming,; loyal to the organization.
What are the dominant work values of the Boomers?
The dominant work values of the Boomers are:
Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career.
When did the X-ers enter the workforce?
Approximately how old are they now? (2003)
The X-ers entered the workforce during 1985 - 2000. The X-ers are approximately 25 - 40 years old now (2003).
How do we obtain a person's value system?
When we rank an individual's values in terms of their intensity, we obtain that person's value system.
What influenced the Veterans? What do they place the greatest importance on?
Workers who grew up influenced by the Great Depression, World War II, the Andrews Sisters, and the Berlin blockade we call Veterans. They place the greatest importance on a comfortable life and family security.
What were the Boomers influenced by? On what do the place a great deal of emphasis?
The Boomers were heavily influenced by the civil rights movement, women's lib, the Beatles, the Vietnam war, and baby-boom competition. They place a great deal of emphasis on achievement and material success.
Which Cohort are pragmatists and believe that the ends can justify means?
Boomers are pragmatists and believe that the ends can justify means.
What have the lives of X-ers been shaped by?
X-ers lives have been shped by globalization, two-career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computers.
Which Cohort seems to be on a never-ending search for the ideal job, see nothing wrong with job hopping, and continually look for meaning in their work?
The most recent entrants to the workforce, the Nexters, grew up during prosperous times and seem to be on a never-ending search for the ideal job, see nothing wrong with job hopping, and continually look for meaning in their work.
What do the Nexters seek?
The Nexters seek financial success.
Define power distance.
Power distance is a national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
What is individualism?
Individualism is a national culture attribute describing the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups.
What is collectivism?
Collectivism is a national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.
What is meant by quality of life?
Quality of life is a national culture attribute describing the extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism.
Explain the difference between Individualism and collectivism.
Individualism is the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. Collectivism is the equivalent of low individualism.
Explain the difference between quantity of life versus quality of life.
Quantity of life is the degree to which values such as assertiveness, the acquisition of money and material goods, and competition prevail. Quality of life is the degree to which people value relationships, and show sensitivity and concern for the welfare of others.
Define uncertainty avoidance.
Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations. In countries that score high on uncertainty avoidance, people have an increased level of anxiety, which manifests itself in greater nervousness, stress, and aggressiveness.
Explain long-term versus short-term orientation.
People in cultures with long-term orientations look to the future and value thrift and persistence. A short-term orientation values the past and present and emphasizes respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations.
Name the five value dimensions of national culture as defined by Geert Hofstede (IBM).
The five value dimensions of national culture as defined by Geert Hofstede (IBM) are:
1. Power distance
2. Individualism vs collectivism
3. Quantity of life vs quality of life
4. Uncertainty avoidance
5. Long-term vs short-term orientation.
What does G.L.O.B.E. stand for?
Globe stands for:
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness.
Define assertiveness form GLOBE's viewpoint.
Assertiveness: The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, confrontational, assertive, and competitive versus modest and tender. This is essentially equivalent to Hofstede's quantity-of-life dimension.
Define Future Orientation from GLOBE's viewpoint.
Future orientation: The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification. This is essentially equivalent to Hofstede's long-term/short-term orientation.
Define Gender Differentiation from GLOBE's point of view.
Gender differentiation: The extent to which a society maximizes gender role differences.
Define Uncertainty Avoidance from GLOBE's point of view.
Uncertainty avoidance: As identified by Hofstede, the GLOBE team identified this term as a society's reliance on social norms, and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events.
Define Power Distance from GLOBE's point of view.
Power Distance: As did Hofstede, the GLOBE team defined this as the degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared.
Define Individualism / Collectivism from GLOBE's point of view.
Individualism / Collectivism: Again, this term was defined as was Hofstede's as the degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society.
Define In-group collectivism form GLOBE's point of view.
In-group collectivism: In contrast to focusing on societal institutions, this dimension encompasses the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups, such as their family and circle of close friends, and the organizations in which they are employed.
Define Performance orientation from GLOBE's point of view.
Performance orientation: This refers to the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence.
Define Humane orientation from GLOBE's point of view.
Humane orientation: Is defined as the degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others. This closely approximates Hofstede's quality-of-life dimension.
What are attitudes?
Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
What is the cognitive component of an attitude?
The cognitive component of an attitude is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
What is the affective component of an attitude?
The affective component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
What is the behavioral component of an attitude?
The behavioral component of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Attitudes are made up of three components. What are they?
Attitudes are made up of three components:
1. cognition
2. affect
3. behavior
Why are attitudes important in organizations?
In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behavior.
What is meant by the term job involvement?
Job involvement is the degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance important to self-worth.
What is meant by the term organizational commitment?
Organizational commitment is the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
Define the term cognitive dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance is any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
Who first proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance?
In the late 1950's, Leon Festinger proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance. This theory sought to explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior.
What have the most powerful moderators been found to be?
The most powerful moderators have been found to be the importance of the attitude, its specificity, its accessibility, whether there exist social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude.
Define the term self-perception theory.
Self-perception theory: Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.
What does OCB stand for?
OCB stands for organizational citizenship behavior.
What are attitude surveys?
Attitude surveys: Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
What are the two most widely used approaches for measuring job satisfaction?
The two most widely used approaches are a single global rating and a summation score made up of a number of job facets.
What is the single global rating approach?
The single global rating method is nothing more than asking individuals to respond to one question. such as "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?"
What is a summation of job facets when measuring job satisfaction?
A summation of job facets identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employee's feelings about each.
What typical factors would be included in a summation of job facets survey?
Typical factors that would be included are the nature of the work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with co-workers.
Are the majority of U.S. workers satisfied with their jobs?
Independent studies, conducted among U.S. workers over the past 30 years, generally indicate that the majority of workers are satisfied with their jobs.
Satisfaction and Productivity. Are happy workers more productive workers?
Satisfaction and productivity--happy workers aren't necessarily productive workers. At the individual level, the evidence suggests the reverse to be more accurate--that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction.
With regards to how employees can express dissatisfaction, define exit.
Exit: Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
With regards to how employees can express dissatisfaction, define voice.
Voice: Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.
With regards to how employees can express dissatisfaction, define loyalty.
Loyalty: Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.
With regards to how employees can express dissatisfaction, define neglect.
Neglect: Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen.